Repairing Surface Scratches to a Lacquered Table

Unless your table predates the early 20th century, then it is probably finished with lacquer. Even though lacquer is a permanent finish, it does sustain scratches — particularly on tabletops. Most scratches are not hard to figure out with fresh lacquer, but you might have a problem matching the shine of this area you repaired together with the remainder of the table. Because of this, it is often best to care for the whole tabletop, which isn’t as tough as it sounds. You may select wax, furniture polish or spray lacquer in an aerosol can, based on the sizes of the scratches.

Remove dirt in the finish by washing it with a mild cleanser, like an ounce of dish soap added to a gallon of warm water.

Repair minor scratch damage by applying a coat of paste wax. Choose a light- or dark-colored wax, based on the color of this table. Spread it generously on the finish, and buff it with a clean cloth. If you prefer not to wax your table, mix equal parts of lemon juice and olive oil in a bowl, and then rub the mixture to the scratches using a clean, lint-free fabric.

Repair scratches that have penetrated through the finish and exposed the timber by first recoloring the timber. You can sometimes do so by rubbing the timber using a nutmeat, like a pecan or walnut; the organic oils bent into the timber and darken it. You may also apply wood stain using an artist’s brush.

Level a large scratch, after coloring the wood, by sanding it gently with 320-grit sandpaper, then dabbing it by lacquer-based clear nail polish, with the applicator that comes in the bottle. The lacquer will soften the old finish, and the scratch must evaporate. You can get similar results with nail polish remover, which is a lacquer thinner.

Combine the sheen of this repair with that of the remainder of the table by spraying on one coat of clear lacquer, with an aerosol can. Make sure to spray a wet coat — the surface must be uniformly shiny after spraying. Wait two hours for the lacquer to dry before polishing or waxing the table.

See related

What Is the Part Bark Plays at a Tree's Survival?

Bark is the outer covering of a tree trunk and branches. Bark is analogous to an animal’s skin. Its functions are conserving water and protecting the tree essential living processes from temperature extremes and storms in addition to from attacks from diseases, animals and insects. Some tree species have extra-thick bark that protects the tree in brush fires. Bark also transports food and water across the tree. Serious bark damage will kill the tree.

Inner Bark Transports

The inner layer of bark, called the phloem, transports sugars made by photosynthesis in the leaves back down to feed the branches, trunk and roots. The conductive cells of the phloem differ based on the kind of tree. In hardwoods, for example, the long strawlike conductive phloem cells are stacked end to end and are connected to horizontal ray cells that distribute liquid nourishment to the tree living tissues. In conifers, the vertical phloem cells are perforated with many tiny pores through which liquid nourishment to your living cells seeps out.

Cambium Layer

The phloem on the inside of the bark is separated from the outer alive layer of the heartwood, called the xylem, by a layer called the cambium. The xylem transports water and dissolved nutrients from the roots up to the leaves and lays down a fresh layer of heartwood every year. The cambium produces new phloem cells and xylem cells to replace those that die.

Outer Bark Protection

The outer bark or skin protects the living phloem, cambium and xylem from ecological harm. The outer bark is always revived from within; if the surviving cells of the phloem workout, they eventually become part of the dead outer bark. As trees grow, the girth of the trunk and limbs expands and the outer bark gets too tight. The tight bark splits and cracks in a pattern that’s different to your tree species. The bark sheds its outermost layers in plates or strips.

Unappetizing Layer

The outer bark of trees is indigestible and unpalatable, which discourages animals and insects from consuming it. But some creatures have discovered the inner bark is sweet, tasty and nutritious, and they’ll chew their way through the outer bark to get at the goodies underneath. The dead cells on the outside of bark also discourage growth of fungi and bacteria. But in moist climates vines, bacteria, fungi, algae and lichens grow profusely onto bark. They are not employing the bark for a food source but instead like a scaffold to hold themselves up.

See related

Do I Cut the Sunflower Top Off If It s Dead?

Cutting off a sunflower (Helianthus spp.) Bloom can serve several functions, based on the form of sunflower you develop. With annual varieties, the only reasons to cut off the blossoms is to harvest the seeds. However, perennials can develop new blossoms if deadheaded, besides providing you.

Annual Sunflowers

Annuals sunflowers (Helianthus annuus), including the colossal varieties, do not require pruning during the growing period to promote new growth and you do not have to eliminate the flowers because whenever the blossom begins dying, it’s usually a sign the plant is dying as well. Once the blooms die, you can cut them and dry them to harvest the seeds. Pull the rest of the plant from the ground and add it.

Growing Annuals

Perennial sunflowers, like the willow-leaved sunflower (Helianthus salicifolius), which develops in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 9, do not have to have their flowers eliminated, however cutting the stems of perennial sunflowers just below the dead blossoms during the growing period can help the plant refocus its energies into creating new blooms. The willow-leaved sunflower will grow as tall as 10 feet, and simply trimming off the blossoms after the plant goes dormant will not depart an attractive plant for the winter. Trim the stalks into ground level after the flowers have faded.

Collecting the Seeds

Wait until the bracts turn back of the flower head gets brownish or yellow. Both should feel dry. Cut the stem 4 to 12 inches beneath the head — the longer period gives you enough to hang it upside down to dry, if the seeds do not fall off easily. Until you cut the stem placing a paper bag on the head can help you keep any seeds which fall as the blossom moves. Examine the blossoms to check on the seeds they’re ready to harvest when they are removed by a swipe of your hand.

Cutting Live Blooms

Sunflowers create a stunning statement in your lawn, but they can do the exact same for inside your property. Instead of waiting to die, cut them about 12 inches below the bloom after the bracts form but until they open. Cutting them helps discourage wilting. Put the stems in a vase of water, changing the water daily. Use the blossoms to be supported by tall vases.

See related

Neem Oil Effectiveness on Squash Bugs

Effective pesticides like neem oil create gardening that is safe and organic possible, even when squash bugs threaten to take over. From sucking sap from the leaves neem oil and neem oil-based pesticides keep squash bugs. Use caution when employing this particular pesticide and keep it though neem is safe. Oil is toxic to honeybees and other beneficial insects.

A Nontoxic Effective Pesticide

Neem oil stems from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), an Indian plant which possibly grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 through 12. The oil works in a combination of ways, both repelling bugs and making it hard for them to feed on the leaves. In addition, it works to control future generations. While they’re in the stage, it works best on squash bugs.

Possible Damage and Diagnosis

Squash bugs feed on vegetables and fruits in the squash, or Cucurbitaceae family, so assess your watermelons (Citrullus lanatus), cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). Bugs suck causing them to wilt, draining the leaves and sap. By depleting the leaves whole plants can be killed by A massive infestation of bugs. Since feeding is minimized by neem oil, it is an efficient approach.

Pre-Treatment Identification

Bugs are not hard to spot. Look for egg clusters that are brick-colored in groups under the leaves. You’ll be looking at the nymphs, After the eggs hatch, they vary from white to grey with black thighs and get. Mature squash bugs have bodies around 5/8 inches long. Look for the orange belly — and the best way to recognize a bug is to reverse if over — with a stick if you don’t want to touch it.

Mixing and With Spray Formulas

Oil formulas comes either ready-to-use or as a concentrate. If you are working with a concentrate, dilute 1 fluid oz in 1 gallon of water. A fresh sprayer works well for applying the dilution. Early in the morning or late squash bugs adult until area and each leaf is saturated with the remedy. Avoid spraying on bees and other insects or pollinators since it can kill those garden helpers. Repeat every seven days before you get the squash bugs.

Security Precautions

While relatively nontoxic, neem oil formulas can irritate the skin, eyes and other areas that are vulnerable. When treating bugs to be safe, wear long sleeves and gloves. Working with a evening or morning can help keep the spray out of blowing around. Keep pets and children away in the backyard areas where you sprayed for bugs before the leaves and dirt dry out completely. Drinking neem oil may lead to stomach upset and, even in massive doses is toxic, so keep it out of reach of curious children and pets.

See related

Does a Dwarf Pomegranate Do Well in Heat?

The dwarf pomegranate (Punica granatum”Nana”) is a striking decorative plant generally grown in containers. A dwarf that was natural variant, it could be cultivated as a shrub or small tree. When cared for correctly, it grows.

USDA Zones

The dwarf pomegranates develops in hot climates. It is sturdy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 7 through 11. USDA growing zones are characterized by the typical temperatures that were low. In USDA zone 7, the typical minimal lows are between 0 and 10 degrees Fahrenheit. It will not produce fruit although the dwarf pomegranate will survive these temperatures. Below-freezing weather leaves to fall and may cause the fruit , notes Missouri Botanical Garden. It grows best in areas where winter temperatures stay above 40 F, which includes USDA zones 10b and 11.

High Temperatures

The dwarf pomegranate is a plant that is heat-tolerant. It may withstand long periods of drought and favors hot conditions. Places are too sexy for it, advises University of Florida IFAS Extension, put a dwarf pomegranate and so go ahead. High humidity, on the other hand, prevents its decorative fruits.

Indoor Temperatures

This dwarf plant, with distinctive fruit and its brightly colored flowers, works well as a houseplant. 1 choice is to grow it in a pot and bring it inside when weather threatens. Indoors, nighttime temperatures between 60 and 50 F, and give it glowing light to stimulate fruit production. Nighttime temperatures to between 40 and 45 F for plants before new growth starts to appear.

Heat and Water

Pomegranates can tolerate heat, but the plant will die without water. Water your dwarf pomegranate to keep the soil moist but not soggy during the period . The dirt ought to be well-draining, and housing dwarf pomegranates that are containers must have drainage holes. In regions that have temperatures that don’t fall below 40 F, fruit must look shortly after the flowers fade. In August, reduce the frequency of watering so the tree keep to water throughout the winter, and could enter a condition that is dormant.

See related

Can You Cut Butterfly Bushes in April Back Without a Sprouts?

Butterfly bushes (Buddleja davidii) create the most blossoms when pruned in spring prior to the new wood begins to sprout, so you can prune as late as April when there is not any new growth. Blooming cans increase. The summer-flowering shrubs are sturdy at U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 10, where they create dense, fragrant flower clusters which attract butterflies and bees to the garden. Be aware that butterfly bush is deemed invasive in some regions of the U.S.

A Light Trim

Pruning if the butterfly bush doesn’t die back completely over winter permits the bush to grow. Disinfect the pruning shears by trapping them cut back any branches that are damaged or dead. Cut back the tips of the shoots to within 1/4-inch of leaf bud or a leaf. Pruning close to a leaf bud promotes once the new shoots start growing afield, which results in fuller growth.

Cutting Back in Spring

Before new shoots appear produce blossoms, butterfly bushes cut to the ground, but they won’t grow as tall as people only pruned. The bush needs if chilly cold murdered the aboveground stems back to the ground cut back. Cut back of the stalks to within 12 inches of the ground, using pruning shears or a pruning saw for wood in diameter. New flowering wood will grow following growth resumes.

Shaping In Sumer

New growth continues so until it begins to blossom, the bush may become overgrown. You can cut back the branch tips from summer before blooming to give the butterfly bush a more compact shape, but a few flowers may be missing in the process. Cut back the tip of every branch to of the bud, using shears. A branch can cut back farther if it overgrown, but light trimming to form the latest flush of growth is all that’s necessary.

Deadheading Spent Flowers

The bushes are still bloom through the summer, but you can increase flowering by deadheading after every flush of flowers while enhancing the look of the butterfly bush. Cut off the flower clusters following the blossoms wilt to prevent seed formation; this forces the plant. The flowering for the remainder of summer is sparse and sporadic Though not necessary, if you don’t deadhead.

See related

The Way to Change Central Air into a Heat Pump

Roughly half of all energy goes so your choice of system can have a large effect on your monthly utility bills. While central air conditioning remains the most frequent way of cooling homes, as many as one third of U.S. houses depended on heating pumps as of 2014. In climate zones, swapping a central air system for a heat pump might help you heat and cool your house reducing your impact on your environment and saving you money.

System Components

A central air conditioner is composed of an outside condenser unit and an indoor evaporator coil. The coil fits in or close to the furnace in homes with central heating and also uses the furnace blower to assist distribute cool air. A heat pump also utilizes coil and an outside condenser, which resembles a standard air conditioner condenser. The unit on a heat pump includes a additional and coil, fan heating system intended to operate without borrowing components out of a furnace on its own. This indoor unit generally resembles a gas furnace that is standard.

How They Work

Air conditioners use power to cool the air; they are designed for cooling. They need to be utilised along with separate heating systems, such as furnaces, to control the indoor temperature year-round. Heat pumps, meanwhile, extract heat from the air rather than generating cold or hot air, which makes them considerably more efficient than air conditioners. Heat pumps can serve to a degree , for both heating and cooling, often eliminating the need for a separate heating system.

Air Distribution

Central air conditioners and furnaces every rely on networks of fabric, plastic or metal ductwork to distribute air throughout a house. You may use the current duct network to distribute air if your air system changes to a heat pump.

Sizing Your System

Size represents one of the primary considerations in choosing a heating pump. This could leave you with a system that’s too small or too big for your house while you may be tempted to simply buy a heat pump that’s the same size as the existing central air conditioner. As many as 40 percent of contractors admit to deliberately oversizing cooling systems, as stated by the U.S. Department of Energy. An oversize system may boost electricity and maintenance expenses, and may result in problems with relaxation and humidity control. Instead of replacing your system with one employ a builder to size your heating pump utilizing guidance made.


In climate zones, heating pumps represent a more efficient means of cooling the house. Heat pump systems can heat and cool a house for as little as one-fourth the price of operating a conventional heating and cooling system, as stated by the U.S. Department of Energy.


They operate when they need to rely upon a electric heater to maintain homes comfortable while heat pumps are efficient in climate zones. If you live in a region where temperatures regularly fall below freezing, then consider a heating pump as opposed to a unit. If temperatures plummet these systems operate to help heat homes economically and more efficiently.

See related

The Way to Attach to Plumbing

Unlike brand new construction, a remodel involves adapting to pipes, although you are going to have to set up plumbing, if your remodel involves installation of a new toilet. If your house is old, the existing plumbing might be out of date, but this is a fantastic enough reason to replace it, so long as it’s operational and you stay in compliance. Ensure it can handle this new bathroom’s waste and supply requirements.

The Toilet

The toilet is the most important part of a toilet, and it has particular waste and ventilation requirements. Ideally, it ought to be connected to the soil pile, which is the vertical pipe that runs to the sewer. However, it has to be located to be possible, When it has a 3-inch socket. The most usual way is to link the toilet waste line and then allow that drain to be a wet vent. Within 6 feet of the toilet, the sink has to be in cases like this.

Fixture Drainage

The sinks, shower and bathtub all must link to the existing drain and waste system, which means they need to link to the sewer and also to the vent stack. In training, the events out of all of the fixtures often meet in a pipe that connects to the stack at a stage higher than the maximum plumbing fixture in the house. The drains may join, but it’s just as common for each one to have its own link. Vent pipes and both drain must keep a minimum slope of 1/4 inch per foot. A port slopes and also a drain slopes toward the sewer.

Water Supply

The supply pipes for the toilet can be chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, yellowish, or CPVC, or cross-linked polyethylene known as PEX. Polyvinyl chloride, or PVCpipes are not acceptable for interior residential pipes. Each link to a 3/4-inch pipe that is key and then should have a diameter of 1/2 inch. It is an error to draw on water for any toilet fixture out of a 1/2-inch branch line that services another fixture. This can be one of the reasons and produces competition. The usual practice would be to”T” each provide line in at the nearest accessible location on the main pipe. Maintain the water that is hot division pipes as brief as possible to prevent having to await warm water.

Particular Factors

They are not causing problems and if your house is old enough to have stainless steel pipes, you might not wish to substitute them. Do not compound the problems they will probably cause in the future, however, using galvanized plumbing. Copper or plastic pipes are more hygienic and easier to install and they last longer. Connecting PVC or PEX pipes to ones is simple, yet to connect aluminum, you need unions, which forbid the metals from touching each other and also remove corrosion at the interfaces.

See related

The Way to Grow Nashi

Nashis (Pyrus pyrifolia), also referred to as Asian Rings are part of the Rosaceae family. It’s also known as a prapple, Since this fruit is sweet like a pear and crisp like an apple. Native to China and Japan, nashi pear trees are well suited to U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9. These growers, that have showy white blossoms in spring and can grow up to 30 feet tall, generally come on grafted rootstock.

Perform a test to ascertain the dirt pH. Nashis thrive in a soil with a pH of 6.0 to 6.5. Amend the soil according to the test results. Incorporate lime to raise the pH, or add sulfur to lower it. Examine before planting, since it takes the amendments a long time to get absorbed into the ground and also to trigger a response.

Cultivate the soil in a sunny to partial region of the backyard, about one week before planting the tree, after the last spring frost. Remove rocks, grass and weeds, and pulverize any clumps. Add a layer of compost to the soil and work it in with a shovel.

Cut on damaged or broken roots from the tree and then discard them. Fill a bowl with water and then soak the nashi’s root system in it, to keep the roots from drying as you prepare the planting site. Scrub the roots.

Dig a hole that is wide enough to comfortably fit the origins of this tree and deep. Put the tree in the hole and backfill it. Tamp the ground with your toes. Soak the soil. Finish backfilling and tamp the ground surface. Plant the tree so the graft union is all about 2 inches above ground level. Avoid having a depression in the dirt around this tree’s bottom in winter months, accumulated water can freeze and damage the tree.

Feed the shrub that is nashi a mulch after planting. Watch the tree’s growth every year. Fertilize it each calendar year if the tree does not grow at least 8 inches.

Put a garden hose on the ground above the tree’s root system. Allow the hose to trickle water so it can be absorbed by that the soil. Water the tree deeply so you reach its root system. Adjust your watering frequency after rainfall and during warm weather.

Pound a 10-foot long stake 2 feet deep away from the trunk of the nashi, 4 inches into the floor. Secure the tree to the stake with tree sticks.

Distribute a layer of bark mulch over the ground around the shrub to suppress weeds, promote soil moisture retention and to add nutrients to the ground. Keep the mulch 4 inches away from the back and replenish it, as required, to maintain a consistent two – to 4-inch layer.

Prune weak branches and cut branches above the buds. Train the tree into a central leader. Lightly prune the tree every winter also to stimulate growth and to maintain its shape.

See related

The Way to Install a Door Frame Within an Unlevel Opening

Door openings have corners, sides that are plumb and level tops and bottoms, but building errors, settling or other elements can cause floors and slide out of level. A unlevel condition in a flooring may indicate a issue that is significant and ought to be addressed by a specialist, but warping of boards, wear or other conditions also can earn a floor slightly unlevel. That needs in installing either an inside or an exterior door require some adjustment. Modern prehung doors are installed the same, regardless of location.

Remove and molding, like bottom threshold or a casing, within the opening. Strip the framework down to floor or subfloor , top header plate and the side 2-by-4-inch studs. Run a scraper over the frame that is tough to eliminate some splinters or nail clippers. Put throughout the bottom of the door opening to evaluate the degree and direction of any sag.

Assess the side jambs of the elevation of the opening using a tape measure and this new prehung door casing; a few doors come with extra-long jambs, which might have to be trimmed using a circular saw so the casing can fit in the framework. So the shirt matches under the tough frame trim the jambs. Place to the frame.

Lift the door out of the framework and knock the hinge pins of the door, with a nail punch or set, to free the door. Pull the door and set it apart. Place the casing back to the tough frame as level together with the jamb edges on either side of the wall despite the wall surface, and also the shirt almost to the frame’s top.

Push tapered wooden shims under the bottoms of the side jambs, one shim from every side, to lift the top that is casing into the tough door frame and hold it in place. Install shims together with the tapers pointing toward each other, until they are strong, and tap them with a hammer. Alternate sides the casing does not tilt, either side to side across the wall faces.

Lay a level on top of the casing until degree is shown by it and fix shims. Place the level onto the jambs to inspect the plumb and install shims between the casing and the sides, starting at the widest gap, to correct the jambs. Work on the hinge-side jamb first. Place in as many areas as required, typically at least 2 stains, and push them from opposing sides slowly to correct the jamb.

After the jamb is plumb, adjust the jamb with shims. Check the bottom and top corners. Put back the door in the casing together with the pins and test it to make sure it closes and opens easily. Check the gap at the bottom of the door if it’s closed to find out exactly what leveling, if any, is required on the floor.

Eliminate and make some changes needed so it opens and shuts. By putting asphalt or wood shingle shims under the subfloor adjust a unlevel flooring. In the event the state that is unlevel is preventing the door from swinging open fully make a adjustment; you might have to raise clearance to be provided by the jambs shim the floor.

When the door is put secure the casing into the frame and opens properly with screws driven throughout the shims. Be certain the facing edges of the line up with the walls. Trim shims on either side using a drywall saw or by snapping off them and scoring them using a knife. Put in a threshold onto an exterior door to seal the floor against air and water.

See related