Yellowing Banana Plant Leaves

The large leaves on most forms of banana plants are a deep emerald green when healthy, but ecological conditions and diseases might turn leaves yellow. Although problems brought on by dirt and weather are often easily remedied, infections are much more difficult to deal with. With appropriate maintenance, banana leaves may remain healthy, and banana plants may thrive up to 25 years in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 through 11.

Growing Requirements

Banana plants can tolerate many different soil types, such as poor soils, however soils that have too much saline or too little potassium may cause yellowed leaf margins or orange-yellow-colored leaves. Both flooding and drought can also create yellowing leaves, as can prolonged periods of temperatures below 57 degrees Fahrenheit. Soil alterations like gypsum or farmyard manure, also known as FYM, can help treat saline and potassium problems. At flood-prone areas, plant bananas on a raised bed at least 3 feet higher than the surface to limit possible damage.

Cordana Leaf Spot

Cordana leaf spot (Cordana musae) is quite common on banana plants in humid conditions or at wounded and weakened tissue. Symptoms on leaves incorporate large, oval lesions that are brown in the center, with yellow halos round the borders. Even though the disease could be controlled with fungicides, it rarely causes severe damage to plants.

Panama Disease

Also known as banana wilt, Panama disease is caused by a fungus in the Fusarium oxysporum familymembers. The first visible signs of Panama disease are a yellowing or splitting on the oldest leaves, followed by leaf wilt and ripped. Since plants found in soils having a low pH makes may be more vulnerable to Panama disease, correcting dirt to make it less acidic and more alkaline may help prevent the problem. Chemical treatment of affected plants is often ineffective, although methyl bromide, carbendazim, potassium phosphonate and heat-treating soil might help.

Bunchy Top

Bunchy top, or BBTV, is a viral disease transmitted by aphid insects and also is among the most lethal diseases of the banana plant. New leaves on infected plants are wavy, narrower than standard and have yellow margins. There is no cure for the illness when it takes hold, conserve removing and destroying infected banana plants and killing bugs using insecticidal soaps to prevent aphids from infecting plants. Eliminate the entire infected banana plant, such as digging the primary corm and roots, and dispose of this plant through burning, or allow it to rot in a black plastic bag.

Yellow Sigatoka

Yellow sigatoka, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella musicola, is often present when warm temperatures, higher humidity and regular rainfall are found. Symptoms start as little yellowish-green spots that develop to yellow streaks which might have brown or rusty red centres. Even though the disease doesn’t kill the plant, it also may affect the size and quality of fruit. Treatment involves an proper fungicide and removal of diseased leaves.

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How do I Make a Crazy Quilt Table Runner?

Produce a crazy quilt table runner by using foundation piecing techniques and your sewing machine. This technique covers a base fabric, or foundation fabric, with smaller pieces of fabric to produce the layout. Join your crazy blocks into the length you will need for your own runner; then insert a border. This job is a fantastic way to utilize the decorative embroidery stitches on your machine as well as a chance to use up fabric scraps and bits of ribbon and trim. Use cotton cloths and cotton if hot dishes may be set on the runner; synthetics can melt down.

Foundation Blocks

Measure and mark the muslin foundation fabric and then cut it to evenly sized squares, with one square each crazy block. Add a 1/4-inch seam allowance on all sides for connecting the blocks. A 12 1/2-inch square ends into your 12-inch block. Figure the size of the blocks in line with the width of the finished table runner, allowing to get a border strip of fabric on all sides. A border is optional, but it will help stabilize the mad blocks and makes a smooth edge on the speaker.

Pin the first scrap of fabric right-side-up anywhere on the foundation fabric.

Pin the following scrap of fabric wrong-side up over the first scrap with one edge of each scrap aligned so that you can sew a straight seam over both edges. Sew 1/4 inch from the aligned edges through both fabric scrap bits and the foundation fabric square utilizing standard thread and a universal machine needle, about size 12.

Trim only the seam allowances to your smooth 1/4-inch edge. Flip the top bit of fabric and smooth it open, flattening the flux line with your fingers. Press the flux line apartment.

Put another scrap of fabric wrong-side-up within an edge produced by the first 2 bits. Stitch a seam through all layers, trim; then press and flip. Continue in the sew-flip-press way until the entire item of foundation fabric is covered with crazy-pieced cloths. Make as many blocks as you want to accomplish the length you would like for the runner.

Assemble Runner

Trim any excess fabric overhang from the edges of the foundation squares. Each foundation square measurement ought to be the block size you planned.

Pin together the advantages of 2 crazy blocks, with the right-sides facing. Machine stitch a 1/4-inch seam to join the blocks. Pin another block to the finish, right-sides facing, and sew it in place. Continue until all the blocks are joined in a row.

Press the seams open or to one side in line with the depth and “lumpiness” of their crazy-pieced blocks.

Measure and trim cotton batting and the backing fabric the size of this row of blocks, allowing additional for the border areas. Cut the batting and backing fabric oversize and trim them later to the exact size.

Spread the insulation material face-down on the job table ; then layer the batting over it. Center the row of mad blocks over the batting layer using the right-side of the blocks facing upwards. Pin together all the layers along seams and edges. Alternatively, you may hand-baste the layers together.

Embellish and Complete

Select a decorative machine stitch. Insert the correct needle to the thread kind and stitch choice, and thread your sewing machine using decorative thread. Beginning in the middle of a middle crazy block, sew decorative stitches along each seam line in the crazy block, working from the center toward the edges. Vary the ornamental stitches and the thread color randomly, or utilize a single stitch like a feather stitch all seam lines. Embroider through all thicknesses. The embroidery stitches fasten the layers together and create a layout on the back of the speaker.

Measure and cut fabric strips to the border: 2 strips to fit the ends of the row, and 2 long strips the length of the row in addition to the finish borders. Pin an end border strip over the block at each end using the block edge and border edge even, right-sides facing.

Sew the border ends in position through all thicknesses using a 1/4-inch seam allowance. The extra batting and backing should go past the border seam. Flip the strip to ensure that the right-side faces upward, and press the seam flat. Apply the very long border strips in exactly the same way; flip open the strip seams, and then press.

Trim excess batting and backing fabric and square up the corners, if needed. To enclose the raw edges, pin double-fold quilt binding around the edges of the runner and sew it in place.

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Designer's Touch: 10 Divine Dining Rooms

With fantastic conversation pieces and tasty food, mealtimes together with family and friends in the dining room must be a memorable experience. Insert an unexpected design spin, and every meal is that a lot more unique. Read on to see how you can freshen up your dining room with intriguing seating, a statement piece, a new ceiling, a bit of black, novels and more.

1. Double up. Stimulate your vision by installing two pendants over your dining room table. Go a step farther and place coordinating — but maybe not matching — host and hostess chairs.

Willman Interiors / Gina Willman

2. Record piece. Permit your room to be the background for an oversize, gorgeous chandelier. Nothing says “wow” such as crystal.

Atmosphere Interior Design Inc..

3. Black beauty. Lay dark, modern furniture and draperies facing a dark wall covering on your dining room for unspoken elegance. Do not be scared of the dark.

A. Rejeanne Interiors

4. All eyes up. Transform your dining room ceiling into a work of painted and textured artwork. It is a masterful approach to bring attention all the way to the very best.

Willman Interiors / Gina Willman

5. The wall of wine. Stack all your favorite wines directly up the wall of your dining room instead of using paint or a wall covering. They create for a certain star attraction.

Michael Abrams Limited

6. Mirror magic. Put an oversize freestanding or wall-mounted mirror onto the focal wall of your dining room for maximum effect. This is especially great for a little dining space, as the space will instantly double in size.

Faiella Design

7. Get all chalked up. Entertain guests with menus or daily inspirational quotes for your family — directly about the walls. Cleanup is simple, and it’s a fun way to have a different look daily. Now that’s cool.

Michael Fullen Design Group

8. Dining with the authors. This little dining room combined with wall-to-wall shelving for books is both a library and a dining room. What a novel idea for people who love to be surrounded by books.

FORMA Design

9. On the seat. Forgo the traditional fitting dining room chairs and opt for a seat on one side of this dining table. It is a terrific way to create your own statement and even cozier for fun.

Habachy Designs

10. Give the red carpet treatment. This oversize rug in ruby red makes quite a statement. Design your entire dining space in a monochromatic colour and create the focal point that the area rug.

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San Marzano Tomato Plants & Diseases

San Marzanos (Solanum esculentum) are somewhat favorite canning tomato variety due to their great-tasting fruit, easy-to-remove skin, few seeds, along with higher proportion of honey. San Marzano tomato crops have traditionally been developed by Mount Vesuvius near Naples, Italy, but this really flavorful tomato is now available to home gardeners in the United States. Learning about its growing requirements, plant care and disease management is the initial step in creating delicious, vitamin-rich fruit.


Paste tomatoes like the San Marzano variety have a dry meaty flesh with small seed cavities. San Marzano tomato crops create deep red, crack-resistant fruit, typically about 3 ounces and 3 to 4 inches long. Initial Italian San Marzano tomatoes are box-shaped with a pointy end, whereas some hybrid varieties produce fruit that is more cylindrical. San Marzano plant height generally ranges between 2 and 4 feet, with green medium-sized leaves and yellow or white flowers.

Growing Requirements

Healthy San Marzano tomatoes require full sun, a minimum of 6 hours of direct constant sunlight a day. San Marzano plants are tolerant of most soil conditions but grow best in moist soil with a pH range between 5.5 and 7. Most tomato varieties grow best in dry hotter climates, however, San Marzano tomato plants also grow well in cool and foggy locations. This tomato cultivar is a indeterminate, or vining tomato variety that may continue to flower and produce fruit during the growing season. The time from planting to harvest these tomatoes is about 78 days. San Marzano plants are open-pollinated, so seeds will create exactly the exact same plant and fruit quality year after year.

Plant Care

Given their vining temperament, San Marzano tomato crops may require some kind of staking or cages, providing support for fruit-laden branches. Moreover, for healthy fruit growth and growth, fertilizer boosts may be required during the growing season. Water-soluble fertilizers provide quick-releasing nutrients and are generally applied biweekly, although individual product directions may vary. Temperature-controlled fertilizers release nutrients more slowly and are generally added to dirt only once throughout the growing season. If utilizing an organic product, such as a fish emulsion fertilizers, implement as instructed on product labels.


San Marzano tomato crops have historically been sensitive to infection, and in the 1970s that they have been nearly wiped out by the cucumber mosaic virus at the Naples area. Today hybrid varieties provide some level of immunity to common diseases like verticillium and fusarium wilt. These fungal wilt diseases are observed in plant debris or dirt and are exacerbated by cool moist weather. Applying too much nitrogen-rich fertilizer can further worsen the issue. Leaf spot is another disease that plagues San Marzano tomato crops. Caused by a fungal or bacterial disease, leaf spot causes brownish or black spots on leaves. Blight could be a devastating disease to San Marzano plants, resulting in rapid deterioration, spotting and wilting of foliage. The San Marzano variety, however, has shown some tolerance to late blight.

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Is Bleach that the Best Thing to wash Damage Off Walls?

Mold is not only unsightly, it is dangerous, and some people are allergic to virtually all varieties. And a few species of black mold are toxic for everyone. Remediation is simpler when the mold is growing on a non-porous surface, such as tile, when it is growing on a porous one, such as drywall. In both cases, though, you need to kill the mold, and bleaching it is not always the best means to do this.

Bleach Does Not Kill Mold

Health authorities recommend bleach for killing mold, but it doesn’t do this, says D. Douglas Hoffman of the National Organization of Remediators and Mold Inspectors. The main ingredient in bleach, sodium hypochlorite, is an oxidizer. It removes discoloration, giving you the belief that the mold is gone, but it doesn’t destroy the spores, meaning that the mold can grow back. Bleach does sanitize by killing a host of damaging germs, and it temporarily rids your walls of mold, but utilizing it means breathing toxic fumes, which is not required when effective alternatives are available.

Vinegar and Borax Are Safer

Two typical household items can do exactly the same task as bleach with less potential for adverse health effects are borax and vinegar. Borax is a mineral generally considered secure unless ingested, and vinegar is completely safe. Vinegar does have an unpleasant odor, however, the odor spreads fast. You can make use of these cleaners separately; mix a cup of borax using a gallon of water and spray it on the mold, followed by a spray program of full-strength vinegar. You can also produce a one-step spray solution by mixing 2 tablespoons of borax in a 1/4 cup of vinegar and adding 2 cups of warm water.

Dealing With Mold-Infested Drywall

Removing mold from tile as well as other non-porous surfaces is a simple procedure, but it can be trickier to eliminate it from porous materials, such as drywall. Mold tends to harden drywall, and once that happens, the only way to make sure that you’re rid of it would be to replace the affected drywall. When you eliminate the old drywall, spray the vinegar/borax solution on the framing; the combination sanitizes, and as soon as the vinegar evaporates, a thin film of borax remains that guards against further mold growth. A bleach/water solution also sanitizes, but since bleach evaporates, you must paint the framing to prevent further growth.

Preventing Mold Growth

Mold needs water to live, so that the best way to keep it from growing is to remove all sources of moisture. When it’s growing because of a leak, stop the leak and allow the wall dry out before treating the mold. Similarly, if the condensation and humidity are to blame, address these problems first. In the restroom and other places where humidity control is impossible or impractical, spraying the walls frequently with vinegar is one way to prevent mold from growing. Let the vinegar on the wall; then rinse and wipe with clear water.

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Are Grub Worms Harmful to Dogs Who Eat Them?

Canine companions eat the strangest things, including grub worms, which can be the little, 1/2-inch larvae of beetles. Grub worms themselves aren’t bad for dogs if consumed. Alas, the soils which the worms ingest and crawl through may include toxic chemicals or the eggs of intestinal parasites, such as roundworms, that can make your dog sick.

Grub Worms and Dogs

If you notice your dog is eating grub worms from your garden or the dirt featuring them, then keep him away from such areas. Grubs aren’t toxic to eat and can, in fact, be eaten safely by people and animals, but only if they’re from sterilized dirt. As the grub worms develop , they dig through the dirt they reside in, eating it as they go. If the soil comprises pesticides, bacteria, fungi or the eggs of parasitic roundworms, then your pup will probably ingest these harmful substances, also. Keep curious pooches, particularly those that enjoy eating worms or dirt, from the garden, to prevent them from becoming sick or getting infected with parasites.

Just Say No

Dogs may eat grub worms if they dig into your garden, so keep your pooch on a leash outdoors if it reveals any interest in digging in or ingesting dirt. Provide your dog food while it’s outdoors so it will not become hungry and nibble on protein-rich grub worms rather.

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What Is the Part Bark Plays at a Tree's Survival?

Bark is the outer covering of a tree trunk and branches. Bark is analogous to an animal’s skin. Its functions are conserving water and protecting the tree essential living processes from temperature extremes and storms in addition to from attacks from diseases, animals and insects. Some tree species have extra-thick bark that protects the tree in brush fires. Bark also transports food and water across the tree. Serious bark damage will kill the tree.

Inner Bark Transports

The inner layer of bark, called the phloem, transports sugars made by photosynthesis in the leaves back down to feed the branches, trunk and roots. The conductive cells of the phloem differ based on the kind of tree. In hardwoods, for example, the long strawlike conductive phloem cells are stacked end to end and are connected to horizontal ray cells that distribute liquid nourishment to the tree living tissues. In conifers, the vertical phloem cells are perforated with many tiny pores through which liquid nourishment to your living cells seeps out.

Cambium Layer

The phloem on the inside of the bark is separated from the outer alive layer of the heartwood, called the xylem, by a layer called the cambium. The xylem transports water and dissolved nutrients from the roots up to the leaves and lays down a fresh layer of heartwood every year. The cambium produces new phloem cells and xylem cells to replace those that die.

Outer Bark Protection

The outer bark or skin protects the living phloem, cambium and xylem from ecological harm. The outer bark is always revived from within; if the surviving cells of the phloem workout, they eventually become part of the dead outer bark. As trees grow, the girth of the trunk and limbs expands and the outer bark gets too tight. The tight bark splits and cracks in a pattern that’s different to your tree species. The bark sheds its outermost layers in plates or strips.

Unappetizing Layer

The outer bark of trees is indigestible and unpalatable, which discourages animals and insects from consuming it. But some creatures have discovered the inner bark is sweet, tasty and nutritious, and they’ll chew their way through the outer bark to get at the goodies underneath. The dead cells on the outside of bark also discourage growth of fungi and bacteria. But in moist climates vines, bacteria, fungi, algae and lichens grow profusely onto bark. They are not employing the bark for a food source but instead like a scaffold to hold themselves up.

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Neem Oil Effectiveness on Squash Bugs

Effective pesticides like neem oil create gardening that is safe and organic possible, even when squash bugs threaten to take over. From sucking sap from the leaves neem oil and neem oil-based pesticides keep squash bugs. Use caution when employing this particular pesticide and keep it though neem is safe. Oil is toxic to honeybees and other beneficial insects.

A Nontoxic Effective Pesticide

Neem oil stems from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), an Indian plant which possibly grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 through 12. The oil works in a combination of ways, both repelling bugs and making it hard for them to feed on the leaves. In addition, it works to control future generations. While they’re in the stage, it works best on squash bugs.

Possible Damage and Diagnosis

Squash bugs feed on vegetables and fruits in the squash, or Cucurbitaceae family, so assess your watermelons (Citrullus lanatus), cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). Bugs suck causing them to wilt, draining the leaves and sap. By depleting the leaves whole plants can be killed by A massive infestation of bugs. Since feeding is minimized by neem oil, it is an efficient approach.

Pre-Treatment Identification

Bugs are not hard to spot. Look for egg clusters that are brick-colored in groups under the leaves. You’ll be looking at the nymphs, After the eggs hatch, they vary from white to grey with black thighs and get. Mature squash bugs have bodies around 5/8 inches long. Look for the orange belly — and the best way to recognize a bug is to reverse if over — with a stick if you don’t want to touch it.

Mixing and With Spray Formulas

Oil formulas comes either ready-to-use or as a concentrate. If you are working with a concentrate, dilute 1 fluid oz in 1 gallon of water. A fresh sprayer works well for applying the dilution. Early in the morning or late squash bugs adult until area and each leaf is saturated with the remedy. Avoid spraying on bees and other insects or pollinators since it can kill those garden helpers. Repeat every seven days before you get the squash bugs.

Security Precautions

While relatively nontoxic, neem oil formulas can irritate the skin, eyes and other areas that are vulnerable. When treating bugs to be safe, wear long sleeves and gloves. Working with a evening or morning can help keep the spray out of blowing around. Keep pets and children away in the backyard areas where you sprayed for bugs before the leaves and dirt dry out completely. Drinking neem oil may lead to stomach upset and, even in massive doses is toxic, so keep it out of reach of curious children and pets.

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The Way to Attach to Plumbing

Unlike brand new construction, a remodel involves adapting to pipes, although you are going to have to set up plumbing, if your remodel involves installation of a new toilet. If your house is old, the existing plumbing might be out of date, but this is a fantastic enough reason to replace it, so long as it’s operational and you stay in compliance. Ensure it can handle this new bathroom’s waste and supply requirements.

The Toilet

The toilet is the most important part of a toilet, and it has particular waste and ventilation requirements. Ideally, it ought to be connected to the soil pile, which is the vertical pipe that runs to the sewer. However, it has to be located to be possible, When it has a 3-inch socket. The most usual way is to link the toilet waste line and then allow that drain to be a wet vent. Within 6 feet of the toilet, the sink has to be in cases like this.

Fixture Drainage

The sinks, shower and bathtub all must link to the existing drain and waste system, which means they need to link to the sewer and also to the vent stack. In training, the events out of all of the fixtures often meet in a pipe that connects to the stack at a stage higher than the maximum plumbing fixture in the house. The drains may join, but it’s just as common for each one to have its own link. Vent pipes and both drain must keep a minimum slope of 1/4 inch per foot. A port slopes and also a drain slopes toward the sewer.

Water Supply

The supply pipes for the toilet can be chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, yellowish, or CPVC, or cross-linked polyethylene known as PEX. Polyvinyl chloride, or PVCpipes are not acceptable for interior residential pipes. Each link to a 3/4-inch pipe that is key and then should have a diameter of 1/2 inch. It is an error to draw on water for any toilet fixture out of a 1/2-inch branch line that services another fixture. This can be one of the reasons and produces competition. The usual practice would be to”T” each provide line in at the nearest accessible location on the main pipe. Maintain the water that is hot division pipes as brief as possible to prevent having to await warm water.

Particular Factors

They are not causing problems and if your house is old enough to have stainless steel pipes, you might not wish to substitute them. Do not compound the problems they will probably cause in the future, however, using galvanized plumbing. Copper or plastic pipes are more hygienic and easier to install and they last longer. Connecting PVC or PEX pipes to ones is simple, yet to connect aluminum, you need unions, which forbid the metals from touching each other and also remove corrosion at the interfaces.

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How to Safeguard Roses From Animals

Rose bushes might have thorns, but that does not stop rabbits and deer from nibbling on the leaves, stems and flowers of your plants. Animals, like moles and gophers, also pose a threat to the general health of roses. These underground pests might kill a healthy bush before it is established, and chew on roots, from thriving keeping a plant.

Put a fence around your roses. Rabbits can’t leap over a fence this high. Bury it prevent animals from burrowing underneath it. Bend the base of the fence at a 90-degree angle as a deterrent to digging. Assess fences staked on the surface of the ground to ensure nothing has tunneled to the flower bed beneath it. Anything with holes bigger than 1 inch will work to keep out rabbits.

Employ a 16-inch barrier of organic deer repellent above your flower bed around the outside of your garden and. Sprinkle it about fencing to deter rabbits from digging underneath to get to your roses. Apply repellent every four to six months from normal rainfall conditions, but reapply after. Select one that’s safe to use around pets and kids, when selecting a repellent.

Line planting holes using a gopher basket when planting or re-planting roses. For optimum results, use a 15-gallon basket, since it supplies a large area for roots to develop. Gopher baskets are made of wire mesh designed to prevent rodents that were underground, such as moles, voles and gophers, from destroying the plant and getting to the root ball of a rose bush.

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