San Marzano Tomato Plants & Diseases

San Marzanos (Solanum esculentum) are somewhat favorite canning tomato variety due to their great-tasting fruit, easy-to-remove skin, few seeds, along with higher proportion of honey. San Marzano tomato crops have traditionally been developed by Mount Vesuvius near Naples, Italy, but this really flavorful tomato is now available to home gardeners in the United States. Learning about its growing requirements, plant care and disease management is the initial step in creating delicious, vitamin-rich fruit.


Paste tomatoes like the San Marzano variety have a dry meaty flesh with small seed cavities. San Marzano tomato crops create deep red, crack-resistant fruit, typically about 3 ounces and 3 to 4 inches long. Initial Italian San Marzano tomatoes are box-shaped with a pointy end, whereas some hybrid varieties produce fruit that is more cylindrical. San Marzano plant height generally ranges between 2 and 4 feet, with green medium-sized leaves and yellow or white flowers.

Growing Requirements

Healthy San Marzano tomatoes require full sun, a minimum of 6 hours of direct constant sunlight a day. San Marzano plants are tolerant of most soil conditions but grow best in moist soil with a pH range between 5.5 and 7. Most tomato varieties grow best in dry hotter climates, however, San Marzano tomato plants also grow well in cool and foggy locations. This tomato cultivar is a indeterminate, or vining tomato variety that may continue to flower and produce fruit during the growing season. The time from planting to harvest these tomatoes is about 78 days. San Marzano plants are open-pollinated, so seeds will create exactly the exact same plant and fruit quality year after year.

Plant Care

Given their vining temperament, San Marzano tomato crops may require some kind of staking or cages, providing support for fruit-laden branches. Moreover, for healthy fruit growth and growth, fertilizer boosts may be required during the growing season. Water-soluble fertilizers provide quick-releasing nutrients and are generally applied biweekly, although individual product directions may vary. Temperature-controlled fertilizers release nutrients more slowly and are generally added to dirt only once throughout the growing season. If utilizing an organic product, such as a fish emulsion fertilizers, implement as instructed on product labels.


San Marzano tomato crops have historically been sensitive to infection, and in the 1970s that they have been nearly wiped out by the cucumber mosaic virus at the Naples area. Today hybrid varieties provide some level of immunity to common diseases like verticillium and fusarium wilt. These fungal wilt diseases are observed in plant debris or dirt and are exacerbated by cool moist weather. Applying too much nitrogen-rich fertilizer can further worsen the issue. Leaf spot is another disease that plagues San Marzano tomato crops. Caused by a fungal or bacterial disease, leaf spot causes brownish or black spots on leaves. Blight could be a devastating disease to San Marzano plants, resulting in rapid deterioration, spotting and wilting of foliage. The San Marzano variety, however, has shown some tolerance to late blight.

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Is Bleach that the Best Thing to wash Damage Off Walls?

Mold is not only unsightly, it is dangerous, and some people are allergic to virtually all varieties. And a few species of black mold are toxic for everyone. Remediation is simpler when the mold is growing on a non-porous surface, such as tile, when it is growing on a porous one, such as drywall. In both cases, though, you need to kill the mold, and bleaching it is not always the best means to do this.

Bleach Does Not Kill Mold

Health authorities recommend bleach for killing mold, but it doesn’t do this, says D. Douglas Hoffman of the National Organization of Remediators and Mold Inspectors. The main ingredient in bleach, sodium hypochlorite, is an oxidizer. It removes discoloration, giving you the belief that the mold is gone, but it doesn’t destroy the spores, meaning that the mold can grow back. Bleach does sanitize by killing a host of damaging germs, and it temporarily rids your walls of mold, but utilizing it means breathing toxic fumes, which is not required when effective alternatives are available.

Vinegar and Borax Are Safer

Two typical household items can do exactly the same task as bleach with less potential for adverse health effects are borax and vinegar. Borax is a mineral generally considered secure unless ingested, and vinegar is completely safe. Vinegar does have an unpleasant odor, however, the odor spreads fast. You can make use of these cleaners separately; mix a cup of borax using a gallon of water and spray it on the mold, followed by a spray program of full-strength vinegar. You can also produce a one-step spray solution by mixing 2 tablespoons of borax in a 1/4 cup of vinegar and adding 2 cups of warm water.

Dealing With Mold-Infested Drywall

Removing mold from tile as well as other non-porous surfaces is a simple procedure, but it can be trickier to eliminate it from porous materials, such as drywall. Mold tends to harden drywall, and once that happens, the only way to make sure that you’re rid of it would be to replace the affected drywall. When you eliminate the old drywall, spray the vinegar/borax solution on the framing; the combination sanitizes, and as soon as the vinegar evaporates, a thin film of borax remains that guards against further mold growth. A bleach/water solution also sanitizes, but since bleach evaporates, you must paint the framing to prevent further growth.

Preventing Mold Growth

Mold needs water to live, so that the best way to keep it from growing is to remove all sources of moisture. When it’s growing because of a leak, stop the leak and allow the wall dry out before treating the mold. Similarly, if the condensation and humidity are to blame, address these problems first. In the restroom and other places where humidity control is impossible or impractical, spraying the walls frequently with vinegar is one way to prevent mold from growing. Let the vinegar on the wall; then rinse and wipe with clear water.

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Are Grub Worms Harmful to Dogs Who Eat Them?

Canine companions eat the strangest things, including grub worms, which can be the little, 1/2-inch larvae of beetles. Grub worms themselves aren’t bad for dogs if consumed. Alas, the soils which the worms ingest and crawl through may include toxic chemicals or the eggs of intestinal parasites, such as roundworms, that can make your dog sick.

Grub Worms and Dogs

If you notice your dog is eating grub worms from your garden or the dirt featuring them, then keep him away from such areas. Grubs aren’t toxic to eat and can, in fact, be eaten safely by people and animals, but only if they’re from sterilized dirt. As the grub worms develop , they dig through the dirt they reside in, eating it as they go. If the soil comprises pesticides, bacteria, fungi or the eggs of parasitic roundworms, then your pup will probably ingest these harmful substances, also. Keep curious pooches, particularly those that enjoy eating worms or dirt, from the garden, to prevent them from becoming sick or getting infected with parasites.

Just Say No

Dogs may eat grub worms if they dig into your garden, so keep your pooch on a leash outdoors if it reveals any interest in digging in or ingesting dirt. Provide your dog food while it’s outdoors so it will not become hungry and nibble on protein-rich grub worms rather.

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What Is the Part Bark Plays at a Tree's Survival?

Bark is the outer covering of a tree trunk and branches. Bark is analogous to an animal’s skin. Its functions are conserving water and protecting the tree essential living processes from temperature extremes and storms in addition to from attacks from diseases, animals and insects. Some tree species have extra-thick bark that protects the tree in brush fires. Bark also transports food and water across the tree. Serious bark damage will kill the tree.

Inner Bark Transports

The inner layer of bark, called the phloem, transports sugars made by photosynthesis in the leaves back down to feed the branches, trunk and roots. The conductive cells of the phloem differ based on the kind of tree. In hardwoods, for example, the long strawlike conductive phloem cells are stacked end to end and are connected to horizontal ray cells that distribute liquid nourishment to the tree living tissues. In conifers, the vertical phloem cells are perforated with many tiny pores through which liquid nourishment to your living cells seeps out.

Cambium Layer

The phloem on the inside of the bark is separated from the outer alive layer of the heartwood, called the xylem, by a layer called the cambium. The xylem transports water and dissolved nutrients from the roots up to the leaves and lays down a fresh layer of heartwood every year. The cambium produces new phloem cells and xylem cells to replace those that die.

Outer Bark Protection

The outer bark or skin protects the living phloem, cambium and xylem from ecological harm. The outer bark is always revived from within; if the surviving cells of the phloem workout, they eventually become part of the dead outer bark. As trees grow, the girth of the trunk and limbs expands and the outer bark gets too tight. The tight bark splits and cracks in a pattern that’s different to your tree species. The bark sheds its outermost layers in plates or strips.

Unappetizing Layer

The outer bark of trees is indigestible and unpalatable, which discourages animals and insects from consuming it. But some creatures have discovered the inner bark is sweet, tasty and nutritious, and they’ll chew their way through the outer bark to get at the goodies underneath. The dead cells on the outside of bark also discourage growth of fungi and bacteria. But in moist climates vines, bacteria, fungi, algae and lichens grow profusely onto bark. They are not employing the bark for a food source but instead like a scaffold to hold themselves up.

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Neem Oil Effectiveness on Squash Bugs

Effective pesticides like neem oil create gardening that is safe and organic possible, even when squash bugs threaten to take over. From sucking sap from the leaves neem oil and neem oil-based pesticides keep squash bugs. Use caution when employing this particular pesticide and keep it though neem is safe. Oil is toxic to honeybees and other beneficial insects.

A Nontoxic Effective Pesticide

Neem oil stems from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), an Indian plant which possibly grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 through 12. The oil works in a combination of ways, both repelling bugs and making it hard for them to feed on the leaves. In addition, it works to control future generations. While they’re in the stage, it works best on squash bugs.

Possible Damage and Diagnosis

Squash bugs feed on vegetables and fruits in the squash, or Cucurbitaceae family, so assess your watermelons (Citrullus lanatus), cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). Bugs suck causing them to wilt, draining the leaves and sap. By depleting the leaves whole plants can be killed by A massive infestation of bugs. Since feeding is minimized by neem oil, it is an efficient approach.

Pre-Treatment Identification

Bugs are not hard to spot. Look for egg clusters that are brick-colored in groups under the leaves. You’ll be looking at the nymphs, After the eggs hatch, they vary from white to grey with black thighs and get. Mature squash bugs have bodies around 5/8 inches long. Look for the orange belly — and the best way to recognize a bug is to reverse if over — with a stick if you don’t want to touch it.

Mixing and With Spray Formulas

Oil formulas comes either ready-to-use or as a concentrate. If you are working with a concentrate, dilute 1 fluid oz in 1 gallon of water. A fresh sprayer works well for applying the dilution. Early in the morning or late squash bugs adult until area and each leaf is saturated with the remedy. Avoid spraying on bees and other insects or pollinators since it can kill those garden helpers. Repeat every seven days before you get the squash bugs.

Security Precautions

While relatively nontoxic, neem oil formulas can irritate the skin, eyes and other areas that are vulnerable. When treating bugs to be safe, wear long sleeves and gloves. Working with a evening or morning can help keep the spray out of blowing around. Keep pets and children away in the backyard areas where you sprayed for bugs before the leaves and dirt dry out completely. Drinking neem oil may lead to stomach upset and, even in massive doses is toxic, so keep it out of reach of curious children and pets.

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The Way to Attach to Plumbing

Unlike brand new construction, a remodel involves adapting to pipes, although you are going to have to set up plumbing, if your remodel involves installation of a new toilet. If your house is old, the existing plumbing might be out of date, but this is a fantastic enough reason to replace it, so long as it’s operational and you stay in compliance. Ensure it can handle this new bathroom’s waste and supply requirements.

The Toilet

The toilet is the most important part of a toilet, and it has particular waste and ventilation requirements. Ideally, it ought to be connected to the soil pile, which is the vertical pipe that runs to the sewer. However, it has to be located to be possible, When it has a 3-inch socket. The most usual way is to link the toilet waste line and then allow that drain to be a wet vent. Within 6 feet of the toilet, the sink has to be in cases like this.

Fixture Drainage

The sinks, shower and bathtub all must link to the existing drain and waste system, which means they need to link to the sewer and also to the vent stack. In training, the events out of all of the fixtures often meet in a pipe that connects to the stack at a stage higher than the maximum plumbing fixture in the house. The drains may join, but it’s just as common for each one to have its own link. Vent pipes and both drain must keep a minimum slope of 1/4 inch per foot. A port slopes and also a drain slopes toward the sewer.

Water Supply

The supply pipes for the toilet can be chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, yellowish, or CPVC, or cross-linked polyethylene known as PEX. Polyvinyl chloride, or PVCpipes are not acceptable for interior residential pipes. Each link to a 3/4-inch pipe that is key and then should have a diameter of 1/2 inch. It is an error to draw on water for any toilet fixture out of a 1/2-inch branch line that services another fixture. This can be one of the reasons and produces competition. The usual practice would be to”T” each provide line in at the nearest accessible location on the main pipe. Maintain the water that is hot division pipes as brief as possible to prevent having to await warm water.

Particular Factors

They are not causing problems and if your house is old enough to have stainless steel pipes, you might not wish to substitute them. Do not compound the problems they will probably cause in the future, however, using galvanized plumbing. Copper or plastic pipes are more hygienic and easier to install and they last longer. Connecting PVC or PEX pipes to ones is simple, yet to connect aluminum, you need unions, which forbid the metals from touching each other and also remove corrosion at the interfaces.

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How to Safeguard Roses From Animals

Rose bushes might have thorns, but that does not stop rabbits and deer from nibbling on the leaves, stems and flowers of your plants. Animals, like moles and gophers, also pose a threat to the general health of roses. These underground pests might kill a healthy bush before it is established, and chew on roots, from thriving keeping a plant.

Put a fence around your roses. Rabbits can’t leap over a fence this high. Bury it prevent animals from burrowing underneath it. Bend the base of the fence at a 90-degree angle as a deterrent to digging. Assess fences staked on the surface of the ground to ensure nothing has tunneled to the flower bed beneath it. Anything with holes bigger than 1 inch will work to keep out rabbits.

Employ a 16-inch barrier of organic deer repellent above your flower bed around the outside of your garden and. Sprinkle it about fencing to deter rabbits from digging underneath to get to your roses. Apply repellent every four to six months from normal rainfall conditions, but reapply after. Select one that’s safe to use around pets and kids, when selecting a repellent.

Line planting holes using a gopher basket when planting or re-planting roses. For optimum results, use a 15-gallon basket, since it supplies a large area for roots to develop. Gopher baskets are made of wire mesh designed to prevent rodents that were underground, such as moles, voles and gophers, from destroying the plant and getting to the root ball of a rose bush.

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Affordable Decorating Ideas for Your Own Lake House

You found a fantasy lake home. Now, finding the funds to decorate it can be challenging. There are many choices for vacation home design. Sourcing decorative things can be as much fun as arranging them in the home. Flea markets, small antique shops and garage sales regularly yield inexpensive finds. Vintage upholstered furniture and lamps are less expensive than at retail shops, and they often look better in a lake home than newer options.


Buying used can save you money and get you better quality furniture. Selling furniture can be difficult, so buyers often have an advantage. Purchasing directly from a seller that advertises on the Internet requires journey to inspect the merchandise and also to pick it up. Local classifieds feature things for sale in the immediate area. Pieces can be recovered. Paint wooden tables and chairs in marine paint for use on porches. Bright primary colors such as blue, yellow and red add charm to dark wood decks and porches. Some hardware stores will rewire vintage lamps for a reasonable fee. Large items can be very cheap when you get them at garage sales. The later in the afternoon, the lower the price that you can negotiate. The seller would rather you buy the furniture–even for a small cost –and have you take it away, instead of needing to drag away the item himself.

Art Work

One man’s trash can become your wall hanging. Old wooden signs or window frames make very good wall decorations. Buy inexpensive prints or vintage post cards and set them in easy wood frames. Dried wild flowers pressed under glass make new unpretentious pieces of art. Collect drawings your children make and hang the framed pieces. Lake houses are about simplicity and delight, so exuberant, naive pieces fit also. Framed quilts make great decorations for places with high ceilings and lots of wall area.


Classic or breeding china displayed on open shelving makes a lake home kitchen look lovely and feel inviting. Install plate racks and display decorative plates on the wall. Baskets filled with pine cones make a cozy informal look and remind your visitor about character just outside the doorway. Dress up sofas and chairs with multiple colorful cushions. Cozy chenille throws or crochet blankets decorate the space and hot late night subscribers. Substantial decorative candles bundled in groups of three or five are both decorative and functional.

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Budget Kitchen Remodeling Ideas

If you’re pining away to get a brand new kitchen but can not manage a professional remodeling job, don’t give up hope. By creating several inexpensive updates which don’t require a professional you may alter an old, dull kitchen to a stylish look. The best part of a kitchen update is that you will likely recover the vast majority of the cost of the update when you sell the house.

Paint the Room

Paint is one of the least expensive ways to alter the look and feel of a space. Decide on a theme for the kitchen, and select paint colour based on this subject. As an example, if you want a beach cottage theme for the kitchen, you may select blue or turquoise for those walls. If the kitchen is small with an average-height ceiling, opt for lighter colors to make a visually larger room. To help expand a little kitchen visually lift a low ceiling, paint the ceiling with bright, white paint. Utilize a semi-glossbright white paint on all trim design such as baseboards, crown molding, and door and window framing.

Update Your Carpets

If your cabinets need an update, and you can not afford to replace them reface themyou can find an updated look by painting the cabinets. Using the same bright white paint on cabinets since you did in your own molding will provide the space a clean, well-lit look. Once painted, you may also add stenciling or other colorful decoration to the cabinets to tie into the space motif. If your cabinets are made from good hardwood, and you do not want to pay them with paint, see whether you can afford new doors. Changing from a strong door to your door with a glass insert may have a huge impact on the look of your cabinets. If investing in brand new doors is outside of your budget, replace the cabinet hardware or add cabinet hardware to make a different look and feel.

Cabinet Backsplash

If you have the skill to install a ceramic tile backsplash, you may use the tile to enhance the theme or even make a focal point with special patterns or decorative tiles, but if you are not knowledgeable about tile-setting, then you may still achieve a decorative backsplash by using stick-on tiles. Tiles come in many different materials, types and colors, some more expensive looking than many others. One of those trendy styles in tiles is metal tiles, such as silver and aluminum. Selecting metal tiles that fit your cabinet hardware and kitchen fixtures is the best way to tie into the colors of this space and maintain a uniform theme.

Window Cornice

A window cornice is a good way to add colour to a room without using drapes or curtains which is going to need to be cleaned and pressed. A conventional cornice is a timber framework covered by lace and cloth, but you may make a cornice utilizing hard Styrofoam and a suitable adhesive to attach the other side pieces to the front. If you are handy with a needle and thread or a staple gun, pay seat cushions with exactly the same substance used on the cornice to combine the space together.

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12 Wonderfully Creative Coatracks

Here in Northern California’s Wine Country, fall is upon us. Crisp, chilly nights have been followed by hot, sun-drenched afternoons — we are often seeing 40-degree temperature shifts. Layering is the trick to dressing in this climate, so on most days I start with a jacket and muffler, and strip down to some T-shirt and shorts by noon.

This creates a coatrack a necessity for me. I wager it’s equally necessary for many of you — particularly if you still have kiddos at home. The big challenge is taking this lowly but essential entryway thing and which makes it a robust statement of personal style and history.

Jessica Risko Smith Interior Design

This exuberant coatrack offers a whole new interpretation of”hall tree.” Multiple stain colours and unique textures add to its interest, and the scale is ideal for this particular wall. You could get the exact same effect by painting the tree on the walls and then adding hooks into the branches.

Allison Lind Interiors + RE:LOCATE

An equally arresting style statement, this coatrack has a dark shade and unpretentious leaves and branches — combined with a constrained scale — that give it an”I’m modern, but I don’t take myself too badly” appeal.

What a superb take on the ubiquitous white beadboard hall built! The deep eggplant color warms and tantalizes, while just the bench’s and coatrack’s being constructed in keeps this very budget friendly. In case your own personal style is less daring, consider doing the identical thing but use a shade just a couple of ticks deeper than the surrounding walls.

Harper Design from HarperCollins Publishers

Eclectic, industrial, playful — that coatrack has it all. Everyday C-clamps grip a brightly colored painted shelf to shape hooks; the mixture of accessories makes it a feeling. I want to understand the story behind the squirrel!

Ira Lippke

This distressed and painted locker, with all of its amazing imperfections, would have been ideal for my sons, who never opened anything with their hands whenever they could use their toes. The simple fact that this is an old United Airlines locker bought off Craigslist gives it an instantaneous story.

If you like the Shabby Chic look, this older doorway will make you drool. The paint has been left as found: peeling and distressed. The glass panel has been taken away, saving rambunctious little hands from disaster. (As a grandma, I really love this.) The addition of hooks finishes the transformation from doorway to adorable.

Erich Ginder Ghost Antlers – $309

White antlers create a minimalist announcement, but the steel and wood dining table below completes the look by adding that vital dash of color and texture.

Scott Sanders LLC

Benches like this not only encourage you to sit down; they bring an awareness of history and connectedness to your house, while providing you a place to remove your shoes in comfort. The pièce de résistance in this entrance is the battered — but totally ideal — piece of wood that’s been made into a coatrack. I really like the way the dark wood of the pins relates to the seat and joins these disparate pieces together.

Fine Art & Portraits by Laurel

What do you do when you require a coatrack but don’t possess the depth for one on your entrance wall? Embed hooks into ornamental tile. There is almost no limitation to the fashions of tile available nowadays, so the outcome can be wholly private to you.

Consider how sophisticated this would be in black and white subway tile, or how rustic and charming in a countryside landscape with roosters.

Kelly Donovan

How about this magnificent solution into an awkward area under the stairs? The twisty branch, or perhaps it’s a piece of driftwood, placed along the slanted ceiling brings an organic feel to an otherwise dead space and creates a very functional coatrack.

Bob Greenspan Photography

Kudos to the homeowner for a very creative way to manage an entryless space. Not only does this étagère function as a pleasant area divider, in addition, it works great as a coatrack. This would be comparatively easy to custom build.

Becky Dietrich, Interior Designer

The very small bungalow I discuss with my husband, Mike, comes with three strikes against it. It has no guest cupboard, our landlord eschews any wall color but white, and the only spot for a coatrack is part of the living room.

In case you’ve got any of the very same issues, do not despair! We fashioned this coatrack out of a reproduction French butcher store sign and pine planks we painted a buttery lemon yellow. The classic Asian torso below not only functions as extra seating when we have a crowd, but hides shoes attractively. You can come across the hint at Gershwin & Gertie and those magnificent cast iron hooks at House of Antique Hardware.

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