How to Repair Wood Grain Rise by Steam

Wood grain increase is a method woodworkers use to fix small dents, dings, gouges, scratches and rough spots. It’s an easy process that entails using a typical iron to swell timber grain by exposing it to heat and water. Individual wood fibers react to heat and steam when molecular cell walls become soaked with water. When cells swell upthey will remain enlarged even after they dry out. After the process is done, sand the wood flush.

Place a drop of water into a dent in almost any piece of wood. Allow the water remain in the dent until it sinks in and add another drop. Continue adding drops until the dent is soaked and will not absorb any more water. It is going to likely not take over four drops.

Dampen the corner of a folded piece of cotton fabric. Set the damp corner directly on the dent. Apply the tip of a hot iron into the fabric over the dent; utilize a moderate amount of pressure. See as vapor rises from the fabric.

Remove the iron once the fabric dries from the steam stops growing. Check the dent.

Place drops of water into the dent until its soaked, and repeat Step 2. Check the dent. If the grain isn’t adequately raised, repeat the water, damp fabric and warm iron software until the grain is raised flush or over the surface of the wood.

Sand the raised grain flush with 100-grit sandpaper attached to a hand block. You might also utilize a rotary or oscillating instrument fitted with a sanding accessory to sand the grain flush. Be certain that you sand parallel with the grain only.

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How to Paint Over Polyurethane Finished Wood

Trends change quickly in the area of design and decor, and it’s very likely you will want to keep up with the times. Wood furniture frequently comes with a polyurethane varnish or lacquer that prevents a simple or instant decoration change. But with careful preparations, you can paint over finished wood in your home and update its look. It requires some patient sanding and sanding paint products to adhere to the vinyl and polyurethane finishes on wood and business wood furniture.

Dampen the cotton rag with the the trisodium phosphate solution. Wipe away all dirt, grease and grime from the surface of the wood, scrubbing away in any tough stains. Let the wood air-dry before moving.

Sand the wood with a sanding sponge, power rotary tool, oscillating sander or sanding block until the varnished wood is smooth and the wood has lost its gloss and sheen. Use lower grit sand paper for rougher finishes and thicker varnishes. Wipe away any dust residue leftover from sanding with a tack cloth.

Apply a thin coat of primer on the wood. Apply in careful, even strokes to avert any thick splotches of primer in remote regions. Let the first coat dry to touch.

Apply a second coat of the primer. Allow to dry overnight. Sand until the primed surface is easy to get rid of uneven textures due to blotches from the primer application and from the brushstrokes.

Apply one coat of the enamel paint in the exact same manner of application as the primer, using lengthy and even strokes throughout the surface of the wood. Let the first coat dry to touch before apply subsequent coats of paint.

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How Long Do I Water Grass Using an Oscillating Sprinkler?

Why waste water on your lawn by running your sprinkler overly long? There’s a way to be more precise with your watering schedule to ensure your grass grows and grows deep roots without wasting water. It is possible to determine the watering number you need for your individual lawn by amending the general guidelines for watering lawns and making alterations where needed, and by comprehending that the oscillating sprinkler’s water leak around your lawn.

Measure Water Flow

Before you know how to long to maintain the sprinkler running, then you want to know its output. Use shallow empty cans such as cat food, herring or coffee cans. Arrange them around the region of the grass you want to water so the cans are evenly spaced over your lawn. Turn on your sprinkler for 15 minutes, and after that moment, dip a ruler to each can to measure in inches the quantity of water. Take the average of the water number from the cans and multiply by four to ascertain your sprinkler’s average hourly output. Use this to ascertain the duration of time you should keep it on and how often you should use it.

How Much To Apply

For most grasses, you’ll have to provide them between 1 and 2 inches of water each week, in accordance with “Sunset” magazine. This water should be given all at once to encourage the roots to grow deeply. For instance, if your oscillating sprinkler puts out 1 inch of water within an hour, water your lawn once a week for a hour. Examine the soil with a soil sampling tube or tube to see whether it’s moistened 1 to 2 inches down after your first watering. A sharp, pointed piece of metal wire or instrument used as a probe quietly pressed into the soil will move easily till it reaches the dry part of the soil. Measure how deep this probe went to determine how deep your soil was watered. Water for another hour immediately to add 1 inch of water if your soil is still too deep after the first inch of water. Watering shallowly and also frequently prompts the grass to maintain its origins short.

How Frequently

How often you water depends on your climatic conditions. Normally, watering once a week will suffice, but if you’ve got heavy rains in your town or if there’s moist or dry weather, you’ll have to generate some alterations. More frequent watering is required if the weather is moist or dry because the soil will dry out in these conditions. If you observe that you are leaving behind footprints in your lawn or if the soil is dry at less than 2 inches below the surface, you have to water your lawn. A rain gauge in your lawn can help you to ascertain whether the rain at your house met your lawn’s water requirements or not.

Water Conservation Tips

Even if you are not in drought conditions, reducing the quantity of water you apply to your lawn when keeping it healthy will help you save you money. According to the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, half summertime water usage is for watering lawns, gardens and other plants used in the landscape. By earning your watering more efficient, you can save on how much you use. Aerating the lawn using a leased machine created for the purpose aids the earth to absorb water better. Prevent evaporation of the sprinkler’s water by turning it on early in the morning on a calm moment. Do not water when it’s particularly windy or towards sunset since leaving grass wet after dusk makes it more disease prone.

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How Do I Save a Tree Limb That Is Cracked but Still Attached?

Like the human body, plants have the miraculous ability to heal themselves. If a tree limb breaks in a storm or for some other reason, then it will remain alive so long as it remains attached to the tree. The spontaneous regeneration of cracked wood is comparable to what happens when a new branch is grafted onto a tree. With just a little help it may even be possible to restore the cracked limb to its former stature and elegance. In the meantime take special care that pets and people don’t travel beneath the broken limb, which might fall.

Assessing the Damage

Limbs can crack in heavy winds during storms, either under the weight of fruit or ice, when struck by lightning, or for various other reasons. They should be repaired immediately for the very best chance of success. Success can also be correlated to the amount of wood that is still attached — in case a thin strip of bark is all that is hanging, chances of success are low. If the exposed tissue dries out, it may not be possible to fuse the wood back together. However, the division will continue to stay through the nutrients and water supplied from the place where it is attached. In this instance, it may be best to cut it off at the branch collar and allow the tree to grow a new branch in its position.

Grafting Smaller Branches

A small branch using a crack can be wrapped using grafting tape or electrical tape to hold it together. As long as there is good contact between the cambium, or inner bark layer, either of the 2 pieces, the wood should fuse after a few months of development. For slightly larger branches that won’t support their own weight with only permeable tape, a splint can be made by sandwiching the break between two lightweight pieces of wood, held together with twine. Supporting the division from below using a forked crutch or tying it up to a larger branch above will help stabilize it further. All the permeable materials ought to be removed in a year so the repaired division can continue to grow without restriction.

Surgery for Larger Limbs

A larger limb may be grafted employing a combination of cables and bolts to hold it together while it fuses to the tree. If a large limb is too large and unwieldy to manage, a professional arborist ought to be hired to do the work. An eye hook may be twisted to the back or an upper branch to encourage the broken limb using a cable. It might be necessary to fasten it using a cable in a few places to stop it from moving around in the wind. If the broken limb was originally positioned at a narrow angle to the back, it may be twisted to the back or bolted with a long threaded rod.

Caring for the Limb

Until the division fuses itself back to place, the region of the break bottlenecks nutrients and water flowing from the main trunk. For this reason, it is helpful to cut back a part of the limb in order that the tree may focus more energy on healing the cracked place. Make sure the tree has adequate water in this time period. If the break occurs throughout the period of active development from spring through early fall, apply a complete, balance fertilizer, such as 10-10-10, to help stimulate development and regeneration of the cells that are damaged. Utilize a cup of fertilizer for each inch of trunk diameter measured at chest height.

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Flowering Quince Without Thorns

Old-fashioned flowering quince shrubs are covered with long sharp thorns and drop messy fruit throughout the autumn. A new set of flowering quinces, named the Double Take flowering quince, grow without thorns to scrape the fruit or skin to clean up. So far there are just three kinds developed, maturing in 6 feet tall with exceptional blooms, which flower in the spring in full to partial sun exposure.

“Pink Storm”

Double Take “Pink Storm” (Chaenomeles speciosa “Pink Storm”) creates big double blossoms 2 inches across with 29 to 40 milligrams per blossom in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 8. All these salmon- or even coral-colored flowers symbolize camellia blossoms. This bush can be grown in a container and kept in 4 feet tall with careful pruning. This plant can be deer resistant, so it grows well in regions with a deer issue.

“Orange Storm”

Double Take “Orange Storm” (Chaenomeles speciosa “Orange Storm”) grows best in zones 5 through 8 using big double-bloom flowers composed of 31 to 39 petals. These extreme orange blossoms symbolize fluffy petticoats appearing in the early spring. The “Orange Storm” flowering quince typically attains only 3 to 4 feet tall and wide in the house garden. This variety occasionally flowers again later in the year if growing conditions are right.

“Scarlet Storm”

Double Take “Scarlet Storm” flowering quince (Chaenomeles speciosa “Scarlet Storm”) creates a profusion of early spring flowers in zones 5 through 9. The dark red petals have a velvety texture. These petals overlap and surround a yellow center, creating a blossom 2 1/2 inches wide. Unlike other flowering quinces that produce blossoms only on the ends of the branches, “Scarlet Storm” covers its branches with blooms. This is just another new variety that occasionally flowers again in the same calendar year.


All these thornless flowering quinces need routine moisture to produce strong roots and stunning floral displays. Even though these bushes tolerate partial shade, they flower best in full sun exposure. Flowering quince shrubs adapt to most soil types that drain well. Don’t prune these shrubs back severely because it lessens the amount of next season’s flowers. Pruning is performed in the spring following the shrubs have been finished blooming. These shrubs spread via root suckers, so remove those suckers when they seem to prevent the increase of flowering quince bushes in undesirable locations.

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Are Banana Trees Self-Fruitful?

For a plant to be self-fruitful, it sets fruit from its own pollen rather than wanting to be pollinated by a separate plant or distinct selection. For instance, many apples can’t set fruit unless another harmonious variety is nearby to pollinate it. Edible bananas (Musa spp.) Do produce fruit without external pollination, but here’s the catch: The flowers don’t require any pollination. The fruits develop without pollination at all (known as parthenocarpy) in female blossoms, and as a result, there are no seeds. So edible bananas are self-fruitful, they simply don’t need to be pollinated.

Banana Plants

The sweet creamy bananas we buy are nearly all of the goods of this “Cavendish” banana (M. acuminata “Cavendish”, also known as M. x paradisiaca). Although the plant that they come from looks like a tree, it’s really a giant fast-growing succulent-stemmed herb with no woody trunk. There’s more to bananas compared to only the edible amount you realize from the shop. There are many varieties of edible bananas, including plantains that are usually cooked before eating. In addition, there are a range of wild species, and these do have seeds and need to be pollinated to set fruit. Sometimes, edible varieties like “Gros Michel” (M. acuminata “Gros Michel”) growing near wild species become pollinated and develop some seeds, however “Cavendish” has seeds. The small brown specks within the banana are all that remains of this ovules that might have formed seeds.

Banana Flowers

If the banana plant has perfect conditions, it will grow a flower stalk 10 to 15 months after planting. It requires a additional 75 to 80 days for fruits to mature. The flower stalk is derived in the center of the plant, demonstrating as a elongate, oval, purple bud. It opens to show white, waxy flowers that are covered with green to purple hood-like bracts that fall away as flowers mature. As the blossom stalk rises, it bends downward. The female flowers emerge first, and these are those that produce bananas. Sterile and then male blossoms form below the female flowers, but these don’t develop fruit and usually fall off. Because they don’t require pollination, a lone “Cavendish” plant will produce fruit. Following the plant is finished flowering and fruiting, it shouted.

Banana Propagation

Because the plant dies after flowering, and there are no seeds from the fruits, “Cavendish” bananas are propagated from the offshoots that develop in the base of the mother plant. These rhizomes, known as suckers or pups, are cut off from that which remains of the mother plant when they’re 3 feet tall, taking some of the main system together with them. After removing the larger leaves, suckers enter containers to develop a good root system of their own.

Fruit Production

Bananas require U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zones 10 through 12 in order to reliably produce fruit, since they require 11 to 19 weeks of warm temperatures to blossom. The perfect temperature range is 78 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit. Shoots grow best between 78 and 82 degrees Fahrenheit, and fruit grows best between 84 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit. Growth falls under 60 degrees Fahrenheit and plants stop growing below 57 degrees Fahrenheit. Bananas also require high humidity, bright light for 12 hours every day, and protection from wind. If you’re able to provide greenhouse or indoor conditions that give banana plants what they require, bananas will blossom and, as they’re self-fruitful, bear fruit in containers at any hardiness zone. “Dwarf Cavendish” and “Super Dwarf Cavendish” are good cultivars for container growing.

Foliage Plants

If you want to grow a banana plant for its foliage and don’t care about fruit production, it is possible to grow plants in USDA zones 9 through 8, but with winter protection. Short frosts with temperatures below 28 degrees Fahrenheit may kill plants to the ground, but rhizomes can regrow. If the origins encounter temperatures below 22 degrees Fahrenheit, then they will die. In USDA zones 6 and below, it is possible to overwinter outdoor bananas by forcing them to dormancy. After the first frost, dig the plant up, taking care not to harm the origins, and shake off most of the soil. Set the origins into a plastic trash bag, tie it loosely, and put the plant in a dark spot that won’t go below 45 degrees Fahrenheit. Plant it back out when temperatures are reliably above 57 degrees Fahrenheit.

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Hackberry Caterpillars

Hackberry trees (Celtis spp.) Are this emperor caterpillar’s host plants. These green caterpillars feed on the leaves and developed shoots of trees but do not cause extensive damage in most cases. Also known as Asterocampa celtis, the hackberry emperor is the hackberry butterfly’s larval form. In its butterfly type, the hackberry emperor feeds on tree sap, dung fruit, carrion and sometimes flower nectar.

Life Cycle

The entire life cycle of emperor caterpillars starts with eggs laid on the underside of tree leaves. In most areas butterflies lay their eggs during the spring and again in the fall. After hatching from their eggs, the hackberry emperor matures over the span of 3 stages of growth on the underside of the foliage. During the phase of maturation, the hackberry emperor creates a chrysalis in. Hackberry emperors that hatch spend the winter inside curled leaves or around the floor and during the fall turn brown in color, and they form a chrysalis during the spring.


The caterpillar is bright green with 2 long, parallel yellow stripes on its back that stretch from head to tail. The body is usually covered with brief bumps which have a yellow color. The caterpillar measures roughly 1.5 inches in length using a pair of brief horn-like protrusions at each end. The emperor’s eggs are laid individually or in clusters on the underside of leaves. Even the eggs of this emperor are small with a white color and a shape with ridges.


Its eggs and the hackberry emperor caterpillar are located on the underside of plant leaves. The caterpillar feeds on the leaves of tender new growth along with these trees. Caterpillars in their pupal form create a dark or light green chrysalis attached using a patch of white silk to the underside of leaves. In most cases hackberry caterpillars are present in small numbers on each tree.


Caterpillars are rarely present in sufficient quantities to undermine a hackberry tree that is wholesome. Cleaning leaves around the tree during winter and the fall is an effective method for limiting the population of caterpillars which are using your tree as a host. Caterpillars controlled utilizing an appropriate pesticide or can easily be removed by hand. Consult a landscaping or pest-control specialist to determine the method for applying them, in addition to the chemicals that are legal to use in your area When there is a significant infestation in your hackberry tree.

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Styles of Manufactured Homes

Manufactured homes fall under the umbrella of what’s known as prefabricated houses, including modular houses. Also known as “pre-fab” residences, manufactured homes differ from site-built residences in that much of the building is done in a factory. The modules or components are sent, and final construction happens at the house’s location. The advantage of this procedure is that the general contractor can save yourself time and money by not having to deal with subcontractors, and the components can be created at a lower price.

Generated vs. Modular

Modular homes are built in sections known as “modules,” along with the sections are transported into a site for final assembly on a foundation. Manufactured homes used to be understood as “mobile homes” or trailers; they are assembled completely at the factory, and the final product is sent as-is to the site. Manufactured homes typically don’t have a lasting foundation, but homeowners may elect to build one. Eventually, manufactured homes can be placed in trailer parks or on personal property.


The style of a manufactured home depends upon the number of sections comprise it. The average section measures eight to 14 feet wide but that can vary among producers. Bigger homes are made up of several sections combined and customized. Unlike modular homes, manufactured homes are only available at single-story configurations. Architectural styles include ranch (typically narrow and longer), cabin-style residences (square with hardwood siding), as well as high-end estate homes with atriums. Floor plans can contain porches and garages made from additional sections.


While floor plans may seem similar on paper, you can personalize a brand new manufactured home by choosing different materials for the roof and siding and selecting a variety of colors and design elements for the inside. More expensive residences feature real wooden cabinetry and provide buyers more carpeting and flooring options. If you buy a used manufactured home, you can replace different elements to better match your taste, just like you can do in a conventional home.


All prefabricated homes fall under the purview of the U.S. government. The Department of Housing and Urban Development regulates structure of manufactured homes to be sure they arrive to safety standards. Additional regulation and requirements for modular homes are imposed by states or localities and are subject to local inspection after on-site assembly. In California, additional state regulations address earthquake along with other regional safety concerns.

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How to Plant Strawberries & Blackberries

By growing strawberry and blackberry bushes in your yard, you will have them readily available throughout the season to use in various dishes or to share with friends. Your most important issues, when deciding whether to plant those berry trees, are space and soil. You must clear out an area of well-draining soil which allows for the spread of the blackberry bushes or supplies enough room to plant at least a couple rows of strawberries, to be able to grow enough for use.


Break up the ground with a hoe to loosen the soil. Do this in early spring, but following any threat of frost is past.

Dig a trench for the strawberry plants which matches the height of the root ball. Space extra trenches two to three feet apart.

Place the strawberry plants into the trench and surround the roots with the soil that was removed from the trench. Establish the plants 18 to 30 inches apart. Add soil around the base of the plants to only cover the surface of their origins but not the crown of the plant foundation.


Find a planting site that has full sun and well draining soil. Chop up the soil and integrate some organic matter like compost or peat moss. Do this in the spring.

Dig holes for the blackberry bushes which are heavy enough for the root ball to be covered by 2-3 inches of soil. Space the holes 2 to 4 feet apart for upright varieties and 4 to 8 feet apart for low hanging and trailing types.

Place each small blackberry bush at a hole and spread out the root system. Cover with 2 inches of soil and tamp down lightly with your foot.

Snip the principal stem back on the plant 4 inches from the ground to force new growth and a fuller bush.

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