The Way to Replace Fluorescent Ceiling Lights

Fluorescent ceiling lights are observed in an increasing number of houses due to their energy efficiency and long life. Although tube life is way beyond conventional incandescent bulbs, they do require periodic replacement. Replacing ceiling light tubes — or those of any fluorescent fixture beneath cabinets or above bathroom countertops — is accomplished in the exact same manner. The tricky part would be figuring out how to remove the cover to get the fluorescent tube, once you understand the fundamentals, but even this is a simple task.

Inspecting the Fluorescent Fixture and Cover elimination

Place a stepladder or step stool. The use of work gloves and protective eye goggles is suggested to prevent injury in the event a bulb breaks up.

Inspect the fluorescent fixture to ascertain how the cover is attached. Some covers are attached with metal side mounts the others lift from place in drop-ceiling installations — and some utility or decorative fixture covers are secured by clips. A less common form is the fixture attached to the suspended ceiling rails in contrast to the wooden ceiling beam. Used primarily for business applications, the cover is anchored to the fixture.

Eliminate in line with the kind of fixture. Bracket covers free, turn screws with a screwdriver and remove pull mounts and mounts. For drop ceilings, press upwards on the cover and slide from place into the ceiling tile. For the form, squeeze the cover gently and pull it free. Put one hand on the cover, if you’re working with troffer fixtures, turn metal clips downward with fingers or screwdriver and lower your hands to permit cover to open and hang freely on the hinges.

Turn on the change and determine that tube requires replacing if your fixture has multiple tubes. It is generally better to replace all tubes because they have lifespans that are comparable, and it is only a matter of time until others burn .

Clean the inner surface of the cover with paper towels and all-purpose cleaner. This step is optional but can eliminate environmental and dust mites contaminants to permit as much light through the cover.

Replacing Fluorescent Bulbs

Turn the switch off and permit the tubes to cool to get a half hour or so. Cutting electricity at the switch is satisfactory, As you won’t be subjected to connections or bare wires. If you’re uncomfortable around electricity, cut room electricity by flipping the labeled circuit breaker into your home’s electrical box to the”off” place.

Turn the tube one-quarter twist with your fingers and pull straight down with both handson. Turn one-half-turn in the opposite direction if the tube does not remove easily and pull. If the tube will not remove easily, consider pushing it. Some fixtures utilize within the socket. The contrary tube-end will be freed — accomplished by pushing the socket when depressed and let pulling the other side. In all situations, pull exercise care to not grip, push or flip the tube with force to prevent breakage. It will pull out of place with ease, After the tube is in the right removal place.

Look at the mark stamped on the fluorescent tube close to the metallic socket for ordering mention and also write them down. The markings will include a string of letters and numbers to recognize width bulb span, socket pin kind and bulb wattage. If markers cannot be discovered, wrap the tube in bubble wrap and take it to a hardware or home supply store for analysis.

Install the light by pushing lining up the two prongs in the socket opening and turning the tube a quarter of a twist. For socket fixtures, insert one end of the tube to one outlet, push with mild pressure and add the tube end that is contrary in the socket.

Reinstall the cap in the exact same manner as it was eliminated, supply power to the light with the circuit breaker (if turned off) and turn on the the light switch to check for performance.

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Carrot Irrigation

Carrots are root vegetables that are easy to develop in a home garden. They do well when planted early in the spring while the ground is cool, especially when put in well-drained soil in a sunny spot. Irrigating your planting bed can offer carrot plants together with the continuous water supply they require, helping to ensure a crop.


Seeds could be sown directly in the soil in springtime or started indoors to create seedlings for after transplantation outside. As stated by the Iowa State University Extension, carrots generally do best when they receive about 1 inch of water per week. Small woody roots with taste that is poor may result, Should they receive water. In contrast, hairy roots that tend to crack if heavy watering follows a dry spell may be produced by too much water.

Using a Sprinkler

An automatic sprinkler can give an efficient method. Position the sprinkler so that water reaches all areas of the carrot bed. Water once per week during morning so surface water will dry helping prevent diseases. Choose a sprinkler and a mist spray with automated shut-off and a water meter, once 1 inch is attained, ending the watering session. Check the bed after watering to guarantee water has penetrated a few inches.

Soaker Hoses

A soaker hose can offer an way to irrigating a bed of carrots. Decide on a hose that is less than 100 feet in length for successful watering. Place it keeping it level and spacing it about two inches from the crops. Place so the whole soaker hose seeps water without spraying. Use a water meter at your faucet if 1 inch of water has been discharged, to ascertain, or assess the soil after watering to ensure it is thoroughly moistened.

Drip Irrigation

A trickle irrigation system is an irrigation method for carrots. A plastic pipe carries water with emitters spaced across the pipe, through the bed. water flows from the emitters at a continuous drip and assess that water reaches all of the plants, adjust the water pressure. Place emitters near the soil line foliage remains dry, minimizing water waste and preventing plant diseases that are specific. Use a meter at the faucet to assess the total amount of water circulated, or check the soil around the plants to make sure that soil is well-moistened after irrigating.

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How to Safeguard Roses From Animals

Rose bushes might have thorns, but that does not stop rabbits and deer from nibbling on the leaves, stems and flowers of your plants. Animals, like moles and gophers, also pose a threat to the general health of roses. These underground pests might kill a healthy bush before it is established, and chew on roots, from thriving keeping a plant.

Put a fence around your roses. Rabbits can’t leap over a fence this high. Bury it prevent animals from burrowing underneath it. Bend the base of the fence at a 90-degree angle as a deterrent to digging. Assess fences staked on the surface of the ground to ensure nothing has tunneled to the flower bed beneath it. Anything with holes bigger than 1 inch will work to keep out rabbits.

Employ a 16-inch barrier of organic deer repellent above your flower bed around the outside of your garden and. Sprinkle it about fencing to deter rabbits from digging underneath to get to your roses. Apply repellent every four to six months from normal rainfall conditions, but reapply after. Select one that’s safe to use around pets and kids, when selecting a repellent.

Line planting holes using a gopher basket when planting or re-planting roses. For optimum results, use a 15-gallon basket, since it supplies a large area for roots to develop. Gopher baskets are made of wire mesh designed to prevent rodents that were underground, such as moles, voles and gophers, from destroying the plant and getting to the root ball of a rose bush.

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How to Install a Cap on a Curved Retaining Wall

Curved retaining walls produce an attractive accent to the exterior landscaping of a home. A well-built retaining wall is made to be capped along the top edge for folks to sit on the wall. The cap also creates a finishing touch that makes the wall look intact. Masonry wall caps are offered in lengths. You’ll want to decrease the caps to conform to the curve of the wall.

Put on safety goggles and gloves.

Lift and place your first cap so that it overhangs the end of your retaining wall on the side and face. Leave a space 3 inches thinner than your cover between the edge of your very first cap along with your next cap. Center the second cap with roughly the same face overhang. Typically the cap will overhang the front and the rear of the block below.

Place your third cap next to your second cap. Except for tight curves, you should have the ability to utilize two caps left for every single cut cap.

Place your fourth cap on top of your first and second caps. Align the face edges. Reach your pencil under and draw corners on the bottom of the cap working with the sides of the first and second caps as your guide.

Eliminate the fourth cap. Cut the fourth cap using a masonry saw with a diamond tipped blade. You can usually rent this type of watched from your home improvement store. This might be a saw cut away from the wall region.

Dry fit your cap stones all. Lift every stone in sequence and employ exterior concrete construction adhesive liberally to the top of the block wall. Place the cap stone back in position. Repeat for all of the stones.

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Affordable Decorating Ideas for Your Own Lake House

You found a fantasy lake home. Now, finding the funds to decorate it can be challenging. There are many choices for vacation home design. Sourcing decorative things can be as much fun as arranging them in the home. Flea markets, small antique shops and garage sales regularly yield inexpensive finds. Vintage upholstered furniture and lamps are less expensive than at retail shops, and they often look better in a lake home than newer options.


Buying used can save you money and get you better quality furniture. Selling furniture can be difficult, so buyers often have an advantage. Purchasing directly from a seller that advertises on the Internet requires journey to inspect the merchandise and also to pick it up. Local classifieds feature things for sale in the immediate area. Pieces can be recovered. Paint wooden tables and chairs in marine paint for use on porches. Bright primary colors such as blue, yellow and red add charm to dark wood decks and porches. Some hardware stores will rewire vintage lamps for a reasonable fee. Large items can be very cheap when you get them at garage sales. The later in the afternoon, the lower the price that you can negotiate. The seller would rather you buy the furniture–even for a small cost –and have you take it away, instead of needing to drag away the item himself.

Art Work

One man’s trash can become your wall hanging. Old wooden signs or window frames make very good wall decorations. Buy inexpensive prints or vintage post cards and set them in easy wood frames. Dried wild flowers pressed under glass make new unpretentious pieces of art. Collect drawings your children make and hang the framed pieces. Lake houses are about simplicity and delight, so exuberant, naive pieces fit also. Framed quilts make great decorations for places with high ceilings and lots of wall area.


Classic or breeding china displayed on open shelving makes a lake home kitchen look lovely and feel inviting. Install plate racks and display decorative plates on the wall. Baskets filled with pine cones make a cozy informal look and remind your visitor about character just outside the doorway. Dress up sofas and chairs with multiple colorful cushions. Cozy chenille throws or crochet blankets decorate the space and hot late night subscribers. Substantial decorative candles bundled in groups of three or five are both decorative and functional.

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DIY: Wiccan Home Decor

The Wiccan culture revolves around the unseen elements that affect life in the world and respect for Mother Nature. Consequently, decorating about a Wiccan motif involves using natural components, either in their original form or modified to make works of art and magical tools. Many retail outlets provide products that specialize in Wiccan topics and contain accessories, furnishings and holy objects, considered essential for practitioners, which can be utilized as decorations. Homemade items can be constructed from substances that were available to correspond with the many seasonal celebrations held by practitioners.


Wiccan lore is filled with symbolism that represents the unseen forces at work in nature. The most commonly known is that the five-pointed star, or pentagram, that binds together the four ground elements with spirit, which is considered the fifth element. Rugs with a pentagram embroidered in the center are common focal points such as ceremonial spaces, and lots of products can purchased together with the pentagram logo integrated into the plan. Crafts that represent animals, particularly the ones that pertain to the constellations, are used in Wiccan tradition to make bonds between man, nature and the cosmos. Mythical creatures such as dragons, phoenixes and unicorns can also be prominently featured in ornamental art pieces, figurines, throw rugs, tapestries and bedspreads.


Each color has significance in folklore, and different characteristics are amplified by combining particular colors. By way of example, white represents pure spirit, therefore white candles, altar cloths and rugs are utilized to make protection from negative energies. Black is considered the elemental color of ground and banishes negative energies, so the combination of black and white in an area decor makes a favorable energy. Colours such as gold and yellow attract abundance and riches, so they are used lavishly in Wiccan decor and are often counter by darker, rich colors such as royal blue for intellect and crimson red to spark fire. Earth colors such as brown, green and gray are thought of stabilizing for relationships and fiscal matters and therefore are essential to a well-balanced Wiccan setting.

Seasonal Decorations

Wiccan ceremonies are centered around yearly cycles, therefore decorations that reflect the current season are fundamental to the many annual celebrations. In the springtime, bouquets of fresh flowers, herbal wreaths and green ferns place the disposition of rejuvenation. As winter approaches, these items are replaced with evergreen boughs, holly wreaths and warm colors that observe the twisted cycles of character. Doorways, windowsills and entryways are lined with garlands of seasonal crop to observe faculty and abundance. Bunches of pine cones, autumn leaves and dried berries can be hung from ribbons or utilized to make centerpiece decorations for a Yule feast.

Celtic Influence

Wiccan design is heavily influenced by Celtic traditions, and the”Celtic knot” can be woven into fabrics that can be hung on the walls or used to cover furniture and upholster seats. The legends of the Maiden and the Green Man from Celtic folklore are often represented in Wiccan households by adding flowers like paperwhites, orchids and white poinsettias set amid dishes of green ferns.


Wiccan ceremonies rely on fragrances and the choice or scents varies based on the seasons. Decorative items such as essential oil diffusers, incense burners, and scented candles that make the correct olfactory disposition are incorporated into the decor to infuse the air with the appropriate odor. Items that emit scents are also worked into herbal packages and wreaths, centerpieces. Many home made Wiccan decorations include cinnamon sticks, vanilla beans, dried flowers and pine boughs to deliver outside scents indoors.

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Budget Kitchen Remodeling Ideas

If you’re pining away to get a brand new kitchen but can not manage a professional remodeling job, don’t give up hope. By creating several inexpensive updates which don’t require a professional you may alter an old, dull kitchen to a stylish look. The best part of a kitchen update is that you will likely recover the vast majority of the cost of the update when you sell the house.

Paint the Room

Paint is one of the least expensive ways to alter the look and feel of a space. Decide on a theme for the kitchen, and select paint colour based on this subject. As an example, if you want a beach cottage theme for the kitchen, you may select blue or turquoise for those walls. If the kitchen is small with an average-height ceiling, opt for lighter colors to make a visually larger room. To help expand a little kitchen visually lift a low ceiling, paint the ceiling with bright, white paint. Utilize a semi-glossbright white paint on all trim design such as baseboards, crown molding, and door and window framing.

Update Your Carpets

If your cabinets need an update, and you can not afford to replace them reface themyou can find an updated look by painting the cabinets. Using the same bright white paint on cabinets since you did in your own molding will provide the space a clean, well-lit look. Once painted, you may also add stenciling or other colorful decoration to the cabinets to tie into the space motif. If your cabinets are made from good hardwood, and you do not want to pay them with paint, see whether you can afford new doors. Changing from a strong door to your door with a glass insert may have a huge impact on the look of your cabinets. If investing in brand new doors is outside of your budget, replace the cabinet hardware or add cabinet hardware to make a different look and feel.

Cabinet Backsplash

If you have the skill to install a ceramic tile backsplash, you may use the tile to enhance the theme or even make a focal point with special patterns or decorative tiles, but if you are not knowledgeable about tile-setting, then you may still achieve a decorative backsplash by using stick-on tiles. Tiles come in many different materials, types and colors, some more expensive looking than many others. One of those trendy styles in tiles is metal tiles, such as silver and aluminum. Selecting metal tiles that fit your cabinet hardware and kitchen fixtures is the best way to tie into the colors of this space and maintain a uniform theme.

Window Cornice

A window cornice is a good way to add colour to a room without using drapes or curtains which is going to need to be cleaned and pressed. A conventional cornice is a timber framework covered by lace and cloth, but you may make a cornice utilizing hard Styrofoam and a suitable adhesive to attach the other side pieces to the front. If you are handy with a needle and thread or a staple gun, pay seat cushions with exactly the same substance used on the cornice to combine the space together.

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Tax Rules for Giving Away Real Estate

Every year, thousands of Americans give away real estate. It frequently occurs when the owner of the real estate expires. In such instances, properties mostly alter hands through wills, which name the owner or owners of the actual estate. Many times, family members present houses. The Internal Revenue Service sets special principles for gifted home, and the principles determine whether tax is due. The rules stipulate who pays any related taxes and how much taxation is demanded.

Gift Tax Rules

The IRS established special tax rules that apply to gifts of cash or real estate. The donor is liable for paying the gift tax, but the receiver of this present can agree to cover the tax. Gifts to your spouse and to charities are exempt from the gift tax. You cannot deduct the amount of real estate presents on your federal income taxes. Under the present tax legislation, an individual is allowed to give away a certain worth in real estate without paying the gift tax. This figure varies from year to year. The exception was $13,000 for a single person. There was A married couple allowed to give away $26,000 in real estate. The tax, however, applies to all levels above the exclusion.

Fair Market Value

Since there is no actual price attached to some real estate gift, the IRS uses”fair market value” to establish the taxable value of the property. Fair market value is regarded as the estimated cost at which the exact same property could be purchased from the seller by a ready buyer. Figured into the fair market value are economical aspects, including the average annual income in the geographic area where the property is situated. Fair market value also variables in the selling price of similar properties in precisely the exact same location.

Estate Tax

When someone dies and his real estate is given to someone else, it is considered part of their estate. The present tax rules don’t apply to estates. Instead, the transfer of property from the deceased into the owner is subject to the principles of estate taxes. There is not any tax assessed within an estate unless the deceased person’s estate is worth more than the allowable amount. That sum in 2010 was put at more than $3.5 million. If the estate is valued at more than $3.5 million, an estate return must be filed with the IRS. The receiver of property through an estate is not needed to pay income tax on the inheritance.

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Define Property Taxes

Property taxation can me a significant monetary consideration for homeowners, drawing hundreds of thousands of dollars into the local government. While tenants do not directly pay land tax, people who purchase a home quickly understand just how this tax works. Understanding property taxation can help you prepare and budget for them accordingly.


Real estate tax is a tax that governments impose on property. It is what’s called an ad valorem tax, meaning it is predicated upon the value of their property. People with a home or land that has a higher value cover more in property taxes, even though everyone inside a given municipality pays property tax at the identical level percentage rate.


Several different groups of taxpayers are responsible for paying property tax. Personal individuals who own real property, including land and improvements to this land, such as houses and other structures, or personal property, like boats, aircraft or home office equipment, must pay tax on such property. In addition, property tax must be paid by landlords on their land and property. The same is true for business owners, whose personal property might include industrial equipment and machinery.


Property tax is based upon the value of the property of the taxpayer. The state of California has a rather typical system, with county assessors that have experience in local building codes and trends inspecting property and determining the value for tax purposes. Taxpayers may also file a grievance in an attempt to lower the appraised value of the property, which would result in a lower tax obligation if accepted.


Local governments use the money collected from property taxes for any number of applications. Nearly all real estate tax revenue goes toward financing county and city governments, including meeting payroll for town workers. Property taxes also fund public schools, such as local school districts and community schools. Finally, some land tax revenue ends up financing community developments like mass transit construction and maintenance.

Maximum Taxation

Every municipality with the capacity to levy taxes might have the power to impose a separate property tax. It follows that homeowners might be responsible for property taxation from many municipalities, including the city, county and school district. But, local laws may limit the maximum property tax rate. This is true in California, in which 1978’s Proposition 13 set the property tax limit at 1% of assessed value.

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Homeowners Association Rules & Regulations

The job of a homeowners’ association is to protect its members and protect their property values. According to RealtorMag, roughly 50 million U.S. homeowners belong to a sort of a HOA. If you’re at a HOA, you know that one of its main functions is to put together a set of rules and regulations that operate the HOA. There’s a core frame for all these principles, but the specifics are ultimately determined by the members of the HOA. If you’re planning to get a house that features a HOA, understanding the rules and regulations is vital before buy.


The CC&R is short for the Codes, Covenants and Restrictions, which are essentially the basic frame for your Homeowners’ Association. These records are often crafted by attorneys, but because each homeowners’ associations needs change, the terminology is intentionally obscure, according to Realty Times. This allows those in charge of the homeowners’ association. Also, not using a CC&R for another homeowners’ association stops you from using rules that could be unnecessary or prohibited to your own homeowners’ association.

The Board

A homeowners’ association is typically run by a volunteer board of directors that are elected from the members of the homeowners’ association. It’s this board’s obligation to enforce the principles set forth in the CC&R, and their abilities are restricted from the rulebook. Some of their basic responsibilities include collecting HOA dues, enforcing code violations and discovering changes to the CC&R. Some boards have broad powersdown to the right to foreclose on roperty if dues aren’t paid.

The Rules

Each HOA CC&R includes a rulebook, things their members have been allowed and not allowed to do. The rulebook can be as exact as the HOA’s members desire it to be, but ultimately the HOA’s members must agree to these principles. HOAs can place restrictions on pet ownership, the forms of flags owners have been allowed to fly outside their houses, what colors houses can be painted, how tall marijuana is assumed to be and even forms of home additions. According to, a few HOA members have obtained their HOAs to court on what they believe excessive limitations.


Many CC&Rs attribute a resolution procedure, and it is a procedure to propose and enact new rules. The positive to the resolution procedure is that it is not necessary to amend the core of the CC&R, which may require the use of an lawyer. The process is similar to the process of adopting a new policy at a town authorities. A rule is suggested. Afterward a review board examines the new rule and supplies HOA members with information so they can comment. In case the majority of the HOA members agree, the rule is enacted, such as information on enforcement, appeal and punishment.

Pros and Cons

The significant advantage of the CC&R to get a HOA is that each of the complex’s principles are spelled out until you move in or buy property. If you’re planning to get a house that features a HOA, it is a fantastic idea to read the rulebook thoroughly, especially if you intend to make adjustments to your property. Everybody in a HOA lives by the same code. The big drawback is that once you sign, you’re entering into a legally binding contract. According to, you must abide by the CC&R and there are few options if you’ve got a grievance. Like any legal document, it is suggested that you thoroughly look into the consequences before you sign.

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