How to Plant Radishes in Containers

While most vegetables are suitable for planting in containers, a few big vegetables with extensive root systems demand containers which take up precious space on a deck or deck. Radishes are ideally suited to container growing, since the delicious, fast-growing vegetables thrive in relatively tiny containers. Plant seeds as early as February, since radishes are cool season vegetables. Have a break during the heat of summer, and then plant another crop of radishes when temperatures fall in autumn.

Prepare a container at least 4 to 6 inches deep. A pot with a diameter of 16 inches accommodates roughly five radishes, even though a 24-inch pot is big enough for 18 radishes. Verify the container has a drainage hole at the bottom.

Fill the container using standard commercial potting mixture, as potting mixture is lightweight and drains well. Prevent regular garden soil, which becomes liquefied and doesn’t allow water to drain.

Incorporate a time-release fertilizer into the mixture. Use a complete garden fertilizer with a ratio such as 10-10-10 or 14-14-14. Use the fertilizer at a rate of about 1/2 tbsp of dry fertilizer for each gallon of potting mixture.

Sprinkle radish seeds on the surface of the soil. Cover the seeds with 1/4 to 1/2 inch of dirt.

Water the radishes attentively to refrain from washing the seeds in the soil. Add water till it trickles through the drainage hole. Thereafter, water whenever the cover of the soil feels dry to the touch. Radishes may need irrigation daily during hot weather, as containerized soil dries rapidly.

Put the container in which the radishes are subjected to at least six hours of sunlight per day.

Fertilize the plants once the radishes start to emerge. Employ a balanced, water soluble fertilizer according to label specifications. Repeat every one to two weeks before harvest.

Thin the radishes once the plants reach a height of 1 to 2 inches. Allow 1 to 2 inches between each plant.

Harvest radishes as soon as they reach edible size — no more than one inch in diameter. Don’t wait, because radishes quickly develop a bitter flavor and woody texture.

See related

The way to Prune "Unique" Hydrangeas

If a snowball hydrangea traveled to the large town, slimmed down and dressed in frilly white, it may resemble a “Unique” hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata “Unique”). “Unique” is an elegant tree, using its elongated 8-inch blossom clusters that open in the shade of pale cream and mature slowly into seashell pink. The showy “Unique” hydrangea is also the hardiest of its species, however, thriving in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 though 8. The quantity of pruning required depends upon the way you want the plant to look. If you don’t need a big bush, you will have to prune this tree early and often because it can grow quickly to 10 feet high and wide.

Snip off the dead blossoms as they begin to fade if you like a tidy garden. Make the cut just below the flower head.

Cut off any dead, broken or diseased stems as soon as you become aware of these. Use garden clippers, and wipe the blade between cuts with a cloth dipped in denatured alcohol. Remove all dead stems at their point of origin. Cut broken or diseased hydrangea stems at least 6 inches into wood.

Prune “Unique” hydrangeas otherwise in late winter or early spring before the leaves appear. All these shrubs blossom on the current year’s increase, so you can prune them anytime from late summer until early spring. But it’s easier to see what you’re doing when the leaves have dropped.

Prune out some of the oldest canes at ground level each spring if you want the plant a little shorter and slimmer. Select the taller canes to accomplish gentle size reduction. The remaining stems will become slimmer and produce more leaves and blossoms.

Cut the plant to the ground if your “Unique” hydrangea is overly tall or producing small blossoms. If you remove each stem at ground level during dormancy, the tree will create much larger, more vigorous blossoms. Take care, because the abundance of flowers might be sufficient to tip the slim new canes.

Cut the hydrangea stems back hard, alternatively, but leave a foundation frame of 18 to 24 inches of canes. “Unique” hydrangeas will expand somewhat taller with this frame intact, but they will not flop over in a heavy rain.

See related

How to Plant Marigolds in Vegetable Gardens

Marigolds (Tagetes spp.) Are commonly implanted as companion plants in vegetable gardens. These brightly colored annuals create flowers from summer. The aroma in the marigolds will conceal the smell of the vegetable plant, which confuses backyard pests. Insects, such as beetles and nematodes repel. Do not plant only a couple of crops, plant clumps of marigolds through the garden to ensure the coverage.

Fill a seed with seed soil four to six weeks before you plant the vegetable garden. Distribute the seeds outside on top of the ground and cover seeds. Keep the seeds moist and moist while they germinate, which will require a few weeks.

Fill a set container that’s with potting soil deeper than the seed tray. When they are at least two inches tall, carefully separate the marigold seedlings. With a spoon, dig small holes from the soil the same dimensions as the roots. Plant gently and the marigolds from the pockets firm soil around the plants. Keep the soil moist and place the container in a place with sunlight.

After the vegetable garden is planted, Ready the planting sites by digging up the dirt to a depth of 6 inches with a scoop. The marigold sites should be around the edges of the backyard and at the ends of the rows. Make sure the flowers are located in a place with at least six hours of direct sunlight every day.

Dig the holes for the marigolds broad and as deep as the roots with a hand trowel. Space the plants 24 to 36 inches apart for its varieties of marigolds. Place small varieties that are marigold . Drive bamboo stakes with a 6 inches to the ground beside the marigolds that are large-sized. Tie the stems with soft strips of fabric to the bets. This prevents from flopping over the large flower heads.

Spread 2 to 3 inches of organic mulch around the newly planted seedlings. Use chopped leaves or dried grass slow soil moisture evaporation to decrease weed growth and supply a supply of nutrients. Water the ground around the bottom of the marigolds whenever it begins to dry.

See related

How to Complete Australian Cypress Wood Floors

Australian cypress, also referred to as cypress pine, is a heavily knotted softwood flooring material. It adds a rustic elegance to rooms and is a common choice for restaurants, cabins and other interior spaces where flooring with additional visual character is an advantage. Available in a selection of shades from honey and cream hues to deep amber, with dark brown or black knots irregularly distributed, Australian cypress is rated at 1,375 on the Janka Wood Hardness Scale. Although it’s officially classified as a softwood, it’s harder than American red oak and also provides durability and long life with frequent maintenance. Several considerations must be kept in mind while finishing Australian cypress.


The aromatic, refreshing scent connected with Australian cypress flooring is produced by the timber’s high resin content. This leaf may extrude throughout the grain of the wood, especially at the place of knots. Australian cypress ought to be sanded with sandpaper that’s changed frequently to avoid the accumulation of wood resin on the newspaper. Additionally, avoid sanding so aggressively that resins are heated up and discharged from the wood. In case the resins are redistributed throughout the surface, then more sanding will be required to remove them. Begin with a coarse grit of paper that cuts the wood efficiently and progress to increasingly finer grits to reach a smooth surface. Don’t use sandpaper finer than 120-grit. Since the high number of knots in each plank are harder than the surrounding clear wood, sand in a 45-degree angle to the grain.


Conventional vinyl wood sealers and finish may not stick properly to Australian cypress, particularly around knots, where the oil-based finish may stay sticky instead of curing. A single-component, permeable paints devised for general wood sealing and applied in accordance with manufacturer’s directions is one choice for the first coat after sanding. Some commercially available finishes additionally include a sealer, however, and may be applied directly after sanding without using a separate sealer.


Apply a water-based polyurethane and acrylic finish formulated for hardwood floors. These finishes can be applied with a brush, a roller or a T-bar applicator. Three uniform coats must be applied in addition to the sealer, allowing each to dry completely before applying the next coat. Don’t apply two or more coats in a 24-hour period. A smoother surface can be produced by lightly sanding with mesh sanding screens between coats. Heavy furniture can be carefully placed in the room after the final coat has dried for 24 hoursnonetheless, allow the finish to cure for eight to 14 days before putting rugs or carpets on the ground or allowing heavy foot traffic.


Dust-mop regularly to remove grit that dulls the finish and damp-mop when necessary to remove dirt. Use rubber or felt protectors on furniture legs and minimize traffic in shoes that are crocheted. Like most wood flooring, Australian cypress maintains optimal dimensional stability in inside states with relative humidity between 35 percent and 55 percent.

See related

Angular Leaf Spot Disease in Cucumber Plants

Angular leaf spot is a significant disease of the cucumber family that leads to reduced yields and fruit of poor quality. You may first notice the disease after a period of warm weather accompanied by rainfall. Treat Super leaf spot with a combination of good garden sanitation, fungicides and keeping the plants as dry as possible.


Angular leaf spot on members of the cucumber family is caused by the Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans bacterium. It’s spread by wind, insects, machinery and people who handle the plants and harvest the fruit while the vines are wet. The bacterium survives on plant debris and in the soil, and it can dash from the soil on the plant by overhead watering and heavy rains. In addition, it spreads through seeds gathered from infected plants.


The damage begins as water-soaked places on the plants’ leaf. The affected areas later dry and turn gray or tan. A yellow halo may surround a damaged area, or spot, at first. With the years, the centres of the spots fall out, leaving holes in the leaves. The patches are confined between the veins in the leaves, giving them an angular shape. Lesions on the cucumber fruits begin as small, delicate water-soaked spots. They become dry, chalky and cracked.

Control Steps

Fantastic garden sanitation is a vital part of controlling the illness. Clean up plant debris regularly, and remove and destroy plant debris in the end of the season. Wait at least two years before planting members of the cucumber family in the same location. That practice applies to squash, pumpkins and melons as well as cucumbers. The illness spreads easily when foliage is wet. So using soaker hoses is useful because they water the soil around plants without obtaining the plants moist. It is ideal to avoid the plants when they are moist to prevent spreading the disease in your hands and clothes.


Fungicides containing copper might help control angular leaf spot in cucumbers. The spray is most successful once the temperature is above 75 degrees Fahrenheit and the leaf is wet. Spraying on a hot afternoon once the leaf is dry can injure the plants. Weekly spraying may be required to accomplish control of this disease. Always read and follow the package directions when using copper fungicides. Store unused parts of the fungicides in their original containers and out of the reach of children.

See related

The way to Encourage Deer in Your Yard

Watching deer roam on your yard can cause you to feel as if you are living in a natural paradise. Because deer are skittish creatures that require a specific environment, they are sometimes tricky to attract. Supply deer with essentials such as food, water, and some form of cover to support these elegant-looking animals to visit your yard. Although deer do not naturally spend a lot of time in back yards, you can encourage them to visit.

Encourage present shrubs, grass and undergrowth to develop untended in a specific area of your yard, local ordinances permitting. Choices in tall shrubs include autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera) and elderberry (Sambucus canadensis). Low shrubs may incorporate blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) and spicebush (Lindera benzoin). Deer can make use of these shrubs to escape from inclement weather, avoid predators and curl securely. They enjoy spending afternoons in a “secure shrubby area,” in accordance with this Alabama A&M; along with Auburn University’s combined book, “Attracting Wildlife to Your Yard .”

Add a water source to your yard. Deer use the water source for drinking and occasionally for bathing. A birdbath on a pedestal offers water for not only your garden’s wild birds but also for the regional deer. A shallow trench may also serve as a water source for deer. A pool may be fashioned by digging a trench in an area of your yard which has deep clay soil. This permits rainwater to gather rather than drain off and offer a continual water source for the deer.

Put corn feeders in many regions of your yard. Feeders should be placed far from the home to raise the odds of attracting the deer. Deer are attracted to corn and also attracted to the simple food source. Oak trees are another food source that attract deer, therefore consider the addition of pine trees into your property where possible. The leaves, twigs and acorns of the oak supply a significant portion of the diet of the California deer population. “The significance of oaks into California’s deer populations cannot be overemphasized,” in accordance with the University of California’s Oak Woodland Management site.

Put a salt block, also referred to as a salt lick, in your yard. Deer are attracted to the sodium in salt blocks and are attracted to an area where they are placed. Set the blocks from the residence, as deer are hesitant to approach them when they see signs of movement nearby.

See related

How Tall Do Raspberry Bushes Grow?

Raspberries come in many different colors which have the conventional red together with black, yellow and purple. Each variety demands similar growing conditions and is fairly easy to raise and maintain. Raspberries normally reach heights of 36 to 60 inches tall with a 24 to 36 inch spread. However, pruning is an important characteristic of growing strawberries, along with the pruning techniques may vary by raspberry variety. You may develop freestanding plants or use support and prune them to keep shape and size.

Planting Raspberries

Because raspberries can grow tall and wide, it is important to space them correctly, because they need good air circulation to assist leaves dry quickly and reduce the danger of disease. When planting, space yellow and red raspberries plants 2-3 feet apart and leave about 8 feet between rows. Purple and black raspberries require 3 to 4 feet spacing between plants and 8 to 10 feet between rows. You are able to plant raspberries in fall or early spring at a location with full sun and great drainage.

Red and Yellow Raspberry Growth

Red raspberries are perennials that make thorny, biennial canes. The summer-bearing variety grows to full size the first year and produces fruit the second year. Everbearing varieties of yellow and red raspberries grow two plants on the exact canes. These varieties bear fruit at the fall of the first year and in the summer of this second year. Red and yellow raspberry varieties may grow as shrubs or you can stake them. The plants are easier to manage and have a tidier look when grown utilizing a stake or trellis system

Black and Purple Raspberry Growth

Black and purple raspberries are clump-forming plants which make arching canes and produce fruit in summer. They do not need a support system, but it is possible to develop them on a trellis to stop them from propagating. Black and purple raspberries do not send up new shoots out their hill or clump, however, the canes will arch and reach down to the ground surface in which the canes may take root and develop.

Pruning Raspberries

Summer-bearing varieties are pruned after harvest and also in spring. When pruning after harvest, you keep about 12 of the most vigorous new canes, and when utilizing a trellis system, tie them into the trellis. In early spring, remove any canes which have grown out the growing region and some that appear weak. It is possible to force everbearing varieties to produce just 1 crop per year by pruning back the entire raspberry bush through early spring.

See related

How to Install an Integrated Dishwasher

An integrated dishwasher is automatically not any different than a standard built-in dishwasher, but aesthetically it’s quite distinct. An integrated dishwasher has mounting brackets and hardware for installing a cover panel which matches the remaining cupboards in the kitchen, making the installed integrated microwave appear like another cupboard. You can set up an integrated microwave’s plumbing and electric in precisely the same fashion as a standard built-in dishwasher in around an hour with a few common hand tools.

Switch off the breaker to the dishwasher’s wiring, and verify that the power is eliminated by holding a noncontact electrical tester against the electric cable below the kitchen sink. If the tester’s light comes on, turn off more breakers or the main breaker to the home until the tester indicates that power is off.

Switch off the water main to the home, then turn on the kitchen faucet to get rid of any water pressure within the system. Remove the hot water supply line to the faucet with an adjustable wrench. Hold the distribution valve with one adjustable wrench and loosen the fitting over the tube with another adjustable wrench. Pull the valve off, the tapered ferrule and the coupling from the tubing. Slide a coupling and ferrule from a dual-feed provide valve over the tube, then connect the valve to the end of the tubing. Finger-tighten the coupling, then fasten the coupler to the valve with the adjustable wrenches. Combine the faucet’s hot water supply line to one of this feed nipples onto the valve and tighten the coupler having an adjustable wrench.

Disconnect the mounting hardware and bracket from the front of the dishwasher as outlined at the unit documentation. Center the bracket over the back side of a matching cabinet panel, and mark the hole locations for the mounting screws through the bracket’s holes. Pull the bracket from the panel and drill a shallow 1/8-inch pilot hole using a power drill to the panel at each hole location. Then reposition the panel and drive one of the included mounting screws to each mounting hole. Replace the panel on the front of the dishwasher.

Open and shut the door to confirm the operation of this doorway. If it opens and closes properly, hold the doorway at a 45-degree angle and let go of the doorway. If it doesn’t stay at a 45-degree angle by itself, tighten or loosen the doorway spring in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation.

Cut a hole between the lower, back-edge of this side of the sink cabinet and the dishwasher cabinet with a hole saw. Feed the electrical cable through the hole to the dishwasher cabinet.

Attach a flexible supply line to the water inlet on the back of the dishwasher. Position the dishwasher in front of the cabinet opening, and feed the ends of the drain line and the supply line through the hole to the sink cupboard. Push the dishwasher to the cupboard and pull the slack of both lines to the sink cupboard.

Adjust the toes of the dishwasher so that the top edge of the doorway is even with the bottom of the countertop. Open and shut the dishwasher door a couple of times to ensure that it doesn’t scrape on the countertop. Then fasten the microwave mounts into the bottom of the cabinet frame with the included mounting screws and a power drill.

Reach under the dishwasher and pull on the electric cable toward the front of the unit. Slide the end of the cable to the wiring clamp, and push about 8 inches of wire to the wiring compartment prior to tightening the wiring clamp with a screwdriver. Remove the outer sheathing from the cable inside the compartment with a knife. Then strip 1/2 inch of insulation from the ends of the white and black wires.

Combine the end of the black cable from the electric cable to the black cable from the dishwasher with a wire nut. Then connect the white wires in similar fashion. Wrap the end of this bare wire around the green grounding screw and tighten the screw with a screwdriver. Snap on the wiring compartment cover to position over the front of the compartment, then put the lower panel cover across the bottom edge of the dishwasher, and fasten it with both mounting screws.

Connect the drain line to the dishwasher drain on the trash disposal, and tighten the clamp with a screwdriver. Then connect the supply line to the open feed on the warm water dual-feed provide valve beneath the sink. Tighten the coupler to the valve with an adjustable wrench.

Turn on the water main and the electric circuit. Examine the operation of the dishwasher and await any leaks.

See related

Greenhouse Pest Identification

Greenhouses make it possible to garden year-round, irrespective of the seasons. Those identical greenhouse walls that erect a barrier to keep cold weather outside additionally create an environment that keeps pests inside. Properly identifying these pests is an important step in managing them and protecting your own plants. Incorrect identification may worsen the problem by inserting unnecessary costs and unnecessary work if you choose the incorrect treatment.

Pest Detection

Greenhouse pest problems that go undetected are difficult to control. A regular monitoring program to enroll for undesirable insects is critical to successful pest management. Mount yellow sticky cards through your waterfront capture flying pests, like whiteflies and fungus gnats. The University of Connecticut recommends putting one to four sticky cards for every 1,000 feet of greenhouse space. For plants that tend toward thrips infestation, like herbs, blue sticky cards bring more pests. Press potato slices into plant growing networking to pull fungus gnat larvae. Check the traps weekly to determine whether pest populations require treatment.

Pest Identification

Greenhouse pests change their appearance as they progress through a series of life stages. Some immature stages, like larvae, nymphs and instars, don’t resemble their more-recognizable adult types. Ladybug larvae, which resemble tiny alligators, look to the untrained eye like plant whales when, in fact, they mature into valuable adults that feed harmful aphids. Different pesticides are only successful on specific life stages so that it’s important to identify not only which pest you have, but also which stage. Otherwise, you’ll spend some time and money needlessly and control pests inadequately.

Winged Pests

Adult phases of several pests move through a greenhouse by flying. Whiteflies, specifically the greenhouse and silverleaf types, are persistent and insidious visitors in enclosed greenhouses. Whiteflies feed plant cell sap and reproduce rapidly, with populations escalating rapidly to infestations. Fungus gnats also fly, but they do not hurt plants as their root-eating larvae do. Gnats are attracted to moist, humid conditions that are typical in greenhouses. Against yellow sticky cards, both of these pests appear in stark contrast to each other, with whiteflies, as their name suggests, coloured white, and fungus gnats seeming brown.

Crawling Pests

Many greenhouse pests are hard to find because they’re tiny crawlers. Aphids and mealybugs are soft-bodied insects that pierce plant tissue and siphon sap. Aphids often focuses on stems and leaf axils, which is where leaves meet stems. Mealybugs are distinguished by their white, cottony bodies that leap to nearby plants if disturbed. Spider mites are arachnids that look like dots moving across plant surfaces. They spin webs as defense against predators and not as snares to catch prey. Like aphids and mealybugs, spider mites feed on plant tissue and leave pinpoints of yellow stippling at each puncture wound. You’ll often detect their webbing before you see them.

See related