How Long Do I Water Grass Using an Oscillating Sprinkler?

Why waste water on your lawn by running your sprinkler overly long? There’s a way to be more precise with your watering schedule to ensure your grass grows and grows deep roots without wasting water. It is possible to determine the watering number you need for your individual lawn by amending the general guidelines for watering lawns and making alterations where needed, and by comprehending that the oscillating sprinkler’s water leak around your lawn.

Measure Water Flow

Before you know how to long to maintain the sprinkler running, then you want to know its output. Use shallow empty cans such as cat food, herring or coffee cans. Arrange them around the region of the grass you want to water so the cans are evenly spaced over your lawn. Turn on your sprinkler for 15 minutes, and after that moment, dip a ruler to each can to measure in inches the quantity of water. Take the average of the water number from the cans and multiply by four to ascertain your sprinkler’s average hourly output. Use this to ascertain the duration of time you should keep it on and how often you should use it.

How Much To Apply

For most grasses, you’ll have to provide them between 1 and 2 inches of water each week, in accordance with “Sunset” magazine. This water should be given all at once to encourage the roots to grow deeply. For instance, if your oscillating sprinkler puts out 1 inch of water within an hour, water your lawn once a week for a hour. Examine the soil with a soil sampling tube or tube to see whether it’s moistened 1 to 2 inches down after your first watering. A sharp, pointed piece of metal wire or instrument used as a probe quietly pressed into the soil will move easily till it reaches the dry part of the soil. Measure how deep this probe went to determine how deep your soil was watered. Water for another hour immediately to add 1 inch of water if your soil is still too deep after the first inch of water. Watering shallowly and also frequently prompts the grass to maintain its origins short.

How Frequently

How often you water depends on your climatic conditions. Normally, watering once a week will suffice, but if you’ve got heavy rains in your town or if there’s moist or dry weather, you’ll have to generate some alterations. More frequent watering is required if the weather is moist or dry because the soil will dry out in these conditions. If you observe that you are leaving behind footprints in your lawn or if the soil is dry at less than 2 inches below the surface, you have to water your lawn. A rain gauge in your lawn can help you to ascertain whether the rain at your house met your lawn’s water requirements or not.

Water Conservation Tips

Even if you are not in drought conditions, reducing the quantity of water you apply to your lawn when keeping it healthy will help you save you money. According to the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, half summertime water usage is for watering lawns, gardens and other plants used in the landscape. By earning your watering more efficient, you can save on how much you use. Aerating the lawn using a leased machine created for the purpose aids the earth to absorb water better. Prevent evaporation of the sprinkler’s water by turning it on early in the morning on a calm moment. Do not water when it’s particularly windy or towards sunset since leaving grass wet after dusk makes it more disease prone.

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How Do I Save a Tree Limb That Is Cracked but Still Attached?

Like the human body, plants have the miraculous ability to heal themselves. If a tree limb breaks in a storm or for some other reason, then it will remain alive so long as it remains attached to the tree. The spontaneous regeneration of cracked wood is comparable to what happens when a new branch is grafted onto a tree. With just a little help it may even be possible to restore the cracked limb to its former stature and elegance. In the meantime take special care that pets and people don’t travel beneath the broken limb, which might fall.

Assessing the Damage

Limbs can crack in heavy winds during storms, either under the weight of fruit or ice, when struck by lightning, or for various other reasons. They should be repaired immediately for the very best chance of success. Success can also be correlated to the amount of wood that is still attached — in case a thin strip of bark is all that is hanging, chances of success are low. If the exposed tissue dries out, it may not be possible to fuse the wood back together. However, the division will continue to stay through the nutrients and water supplied from the place where it is attached. In this instance, it may be best to cut it off at the branch collar and allow the tree to grow a new branch in its position.

Grafting Smaller Branches

A small branch using a crack can be wrapped using grafting tape or electrical tape to hold it together. As long as there is good contact between the cambium, or inner bark layer, either of the 2 pieces, the wood should fuse after a few months of development. For slightly larger branches that won’t support their own weight with only permeable tape, a splint can be made by sandwiching the break between two lightweight pieces of wood, held together with twine. Supporting the division from below using a forked crutch or tying it up to a larger branch above will help stabilize it further. All the permeable materials ought to be removed in a year so the repaired division can continue to grow without restriction.

Surgery for Larger Limbs

A larger limb may be grafted employing a combination of cables and bolts to hold it together while it fuses to the tree. If a large limb is too large and unwieldy to manage, a professional arborist ought to be hired to do the work. An eye hook may be twisted to the back or an upper branch to encourage the broken limb using a cable. It might be necessary to fasten it using a cable in a few places to stop it from moving around in the wind. If the broken limb was originally positioned at a narrow angle to the back, it may be twisted to the back or bolted with a long threaded rod.

Caring for the Limb

Until the division fuses itself back to place, the region of the break bottlenecks nutrients and water flowing from the main trunk. For this reason, it is helpful to cut back a part of the limb in order that the tree may focus more energy on healing the cracked place. Make sure the tree has adequate water in this time period. If the break occurs throughout the period of active development from spring through early fall, apply a complete, balance fertilizer, such as 10-10-10, to help stimulate development and regeneration of the cells that are damaged. Utilize a cup of fertilizer for each inch of trunk diameter measured at chest height.

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Flowering Quince Without Thorns

Old-fashioned flowering quince shrubs are covered with long sharp thorns and drop messy fruit throughout the autumn. A new set of flowering quinces, named the Double Take flowering quince, grow without thorns to scrape the fruit or skin to clean up. So far there are just three kinds developed, maturing in 6 feet tall with exceptional blooms, which flower in the spring in full to partial sun exposure.

“Pink Storm”

Double Take “Pink Storm” (Chaenomeles speciosa “Pink Storm”) creates big double blossoms 2 inches across with 29 to 40 milligrams per blossom in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 8. All these salmon- or even coral-colored flowers symbolize camellia blossoms. This bush can be grown in a container and kept in 4 feet tall with careful pruning. This plant can be deer resistant, so it grows well in regions with a deer issue.

“Orange Storm”

Double Take “Orange Storm” (Chaenomeles speciosa “Orange Storm”) grows best in zones 5 through 8 using big double-bloom flowers composed of 31 to 39 petals. These extreme orange blossoms symbolize fluffy petticoats appearing in the early spring. The “Orange Storm” flowering quince typically attains only 3 to 4 feet tall and wide in the house garden. This variety occasionally flowers again later in the year if growing conditions are right.

“Scarlet Storm”

Double Take “Scarlet Storm” flowering quince (Chaenomeles speciosa “Scarlet Storm”) creates a profusion of early spring flowers in zones 5 through 9. The dark red petals have a velvety texture. These petals overlap and surround a yellow center, creating a blossom 2 1/2 inches wide. Unlike other flowering quinces that produce blossoms only on the ends of the branches, “Scarlet Storm” covers its branches with blooms. This is just another new variety that occasionally flowers again in the same calendar year.


All these thornless flowering quinces need routine moisture to produce strong roots and stunning floral displays. Even though these bushes tolerate partial shade, they flower best in full sun exposure. Flowering quince shrubs adapt to most soil types that drain well. Don’t prune these shrubs back severely because it lessens the amount of next season’s flowers. Pruning is performed in the spring following the shrubs have been finished blooming. These shrubs spread via root suckers, so remove those suckers when they seem to prevent the increase of flowering quince bushes in undesirable locations.

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Are Banana Trees Self-Fruitful?

For a plant to be self-fruitful, it sets fruit from its own pollen rather than wanting to be pollinated by a separate plant or distinct selection. For instance, many apples can’t set fruit unless another harmonious variety is nearby to pollinate it. Edible bananas (Musa spp.) Do produce fruit without external pollination, but here’s the catch: The flowers don’t require any pollination. The fruits develop without pollination at all (known as parthenocarpy) in female blossoms, and as a result, there are no seeds. So edible bananas are self-fruitful, they simply don’t need to be pollinated.

Banana Plants

The sweet creamy bananas we buy are nearly all of the goods of this “Cavendish” banana (M. acuminata “Cavendish”, also known as M. x paradisiaca). Although the plant that they come from looks like a tree, it’s really a giant fast-growing succulent-stemmed herb with no woody trunk. There’s more to bananas compared to only the edible amount you realize from the shop. There are many varieties of edible bananas, including plantains that are usually cooked before eating. In addition, there are a range of wild species, and these do have seeds and need to be pollinated to set fruit. Sometimes, edible varieties like “Gros Michel” (M. acuminata “Gros Michel”) growing near wild species become pollinated and develop some seeds, however “Cavendish” has seeds. The small brown specks within the banana are all that remains of this ovules that might have formed seeds.

Banana Flowers

If the banana plant has perfect conditions, it will grow a flower stalk 10 to 15 months after planting. It requires a additional 75 to 80 days for fruits to mature. The flower stalk is derived in the center of the plant, demonstrating as a elongate, oval, purple bud. It opens to show white, waxy flowers that are covered with green to purple hood-like bracts that fall away as flowers mature. As the blossom stalk rises, it bends downward. The female flowers emerge first, and these are those that produce bananas. Sterile and then male blossoms form below the female flowers, but these don’t develop fruit and usually fall off. Because they don’t require pollination, a lone “Cavendish” plant will produce fruit. Following the plant is finished flowering and fruiting, it shouted.

Banana Propagation

Because the plant dies after flowering, and there are no seeds from the fruits, “Cavendish” bananas are propagated from the offshoots that develop in the base of the mother plant. These rhizomes, known as suckers or pups, are cut off from that which remains of the mother plant when they’re 3 feet tall, taking some of the main system together with them. After removing the larger leaves, suckers enter containers to develop a good root system of their own.

Fruit Production

Bananas require U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zones 10 through 12 in order to reliably produce fruit, since they require 11 to 19 weeks of warm temperatures to blossom. The perfect temperature range is 78 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit. Shoots grow best between 78 and 82 degrees Fahrenheit, and fruit grows best between 84 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit. Growth falls under 60 degrees Fahrenheit and plants stop growing below 57 degrees Fahrenheit. Bananas also require high humidity, bright light for 12 hours every day, and protection from wind. If you’re able to provide greenhouse or indoor conditions that give banana plants what they require, bananas will blossom and, as they’re self-fruitful, bear fruit in containers at any hardiness zone. “Dwarf Cavendish” and “Super Dwarf Cavendish” are good cultivars for container growing.

Foliage Plants

If you want to grow a banana plant for its foliage and don’t care about fruit production, it is possible to grow plants in USDA zones 9 through 8, but with winter protection. Short frosts with temperatures below 28 degrees Fahrenheit may kill plants to the ground, but rhizomes can regrow. If the origins encounter temperatures below 22 degrees Fahrenheit, then they will die. In USDA zones 6 and below, it is possible to overwinter outdoor bananas by forcing them to dormancy. After the first frost, dig the plant up, taking care not to harm the origins, and shake off most of the soil. Set the origins into a plastic trash bag, tie it loosely, and put the plant in a dark spot that won’t go below 45 degrees Fahrenheit. Plant it back out when temperatures are reliably above 57 degrees Fahrenheit.

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Hackberry Caterpillars

Hackberry trees (Celtis spp.) Are this emperor caterpillar’s host plants. These green caterpillars feed on the leaves and developed shoots of trees but do not cause extensive damage in most cases. Also known as Asterocampa celtis, the hackberry emperor is the hackberry butterfly’s larval form. In its butterfly type, the hackberry emperor feeds on tree sap, dung fruit, carrion and sometimes flower nectar.

Life Cycle

The entire life cycle of emperor caterpillars starts with eggs laid on the underside of tree leaves. In most areas butterflies lay their eggs during the spring and again in the fall. After hatching from their eggs, the hackberry emperor matures over the span of 3 stages of growth on the underside of the foliage. During the phase of maturation, the hackberry emperor creates a chrysalis in. Hackberry emperors that hatch spend the winter inside curled leaves or around the floor and during the fall turn brown in color, and they form a chrysalis during the spring.


The caterpillar is bright green with 2 long, parallel yellow stripes on its back that stretch from head to tail. The body is usually covered with brief bumps which have a yellow color. The caterpillar measures roughly 1.5 inches in length using a pair of brief horn-like protrusions at each end. The emperor’s eggs are laid individually or in clusters on the underside of leaves. Even the eggs of this emperor are small with a white color and a shape with ridges.


Its eggs and the hackberry emperor caterpillar are located on the underside of plant leaves. The caterpillar feeds on the leaves of tender new growth along with these trees. Caterpillars in their pupal form create a dark or light green chrysalis attached using a patch of white silk to the underside of leaves. In most cases hackberry caterpillars are present in small numbers on each tree.


Caterpillars are rarely present in sufficient quantities to undermine a hackberry tree that is wholesome. Cleaning leaves around the tree during winter and the fall is an effective method for limiting the population of caterpillars which are using your tree as a host. Caterpillars controlled utilizing an appropriate pesticide or can easily be removed by hand. Consult a landscaping or pest-control specialist to determine the method for applying them, in addition to the chemicals that are legal to use in your area When there is a significant infestation in your hackberry tree.

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How to Plant Strawberries & Blackberries

By growing strawberry and blackberry bushes in your yard, you will have them readily available throughout the season to use in various dishes or to share with friends. Your most important issues, when deciding whether to plant those berry trees, are space and soil. You must clear out an area of well-draining soil which allows for the spread of the blackberry bushes or supplies enough room to plant at least a couple rows of strawberries, to be able to grow enough for use.


Break up the ground with a hoe to loosen the soil. Do this in early spring, but following any threat of frost is past.

Dig a trench for the strawberry plants which matches the height of the root ball. Space extra trenches two to three feet apart.

Place the strawberry plants into the trench and surround the roots with the soil that was removed from the trench. Establish the plants 18 to 30 inches apart. Add soil around the base of the plants to only cover the surface of their origins but not the crown of the plant foundation.


Find a planting site that has full sun and well draining soil. Chop up the soil and integrate some organic matter like compost or peat moss. Do this in the spring.

Dig holes for the blackberry bushes which are heavy enough for the root ball to be covered by 2-3 inches of soil. Space the holes 2 to 4 feet apart for upright varieties and 4 to 8 feet apart for low hanging and trailing types.

Place each small blackberry bush at a hole and spread out the root system. Cover with 2 inches of soil and tamp down lightly with your foot.

Snip the principal stem back on the plant 4 inches from the ground to force new growth and a fuller bush.

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How to Plant Radishes in Containers

While most vegetables are suitable for planting in containers, a few big vegetables with extensive root systems demand containers which take up precious space on a deck or deck. Radishes are ideally suited to container growing, since the delicious, fast-growing vegetables thrive in relatively tiny containers. Plant seeds as early as February, since radishes are cool season vegetables. Have a break during the heat of summer, and then plant another crop of radishes when temperatures fall in autumn.

Prepare a container at least 4 to 6 inches deep. A pot with a diameter of 16 inches accommodates roughly five radishes, even though a 24-inch pot is big enough for 18 radishes. Verify the container has a drainage hole at the bottom.

Fill the container using standard commercial potting mixture, as potting mixture is lightweight and drains well. Prevent regular garden soil, which becomes liquefied and doesn’t allow water to drain.

Incorporate a time-release fertilizer into the mixture. Use a complete garden fertilizer with a ratio such as 10-10-10 or 14-14-14. Use the fertilizer at a rate of about 1/2 tbsp of dry fertilizer for each gallon of potting mixture.

Sprinkle radish seeds on the surface of the soil. Cover the seeds with 1/4 to 1/2 inch of dirt.

Water the radishes attentively to refrain from washing the seeds in the soil. Add water till it trickles through the drainage hole. Thereafter, water whenever the cover of the soil feels dry to the touch. Radishes may need irrigation daily during hot weather, as containerized soil dries rapidly.

Put the container in which the radishes are subjected to at least six hours of sunlight per day.

Fertilize the plants once the radishes start to emerge. Employ a balanced, water soluble fertilizer according to label specifications. Repeat every one to two weeks before harvest.

Thin the radishes once the plants reach a height of 1 to 2 inches. Allow 1 to 2 inches between each plant.

Harvest radishes as soon as they reach edible size — no more than one inch in diameter. Don’t wait, because radishes quickly develop a bitter flavor and woody texture.

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The way to Prune "Unique" Hydrangeas

If a snowball hydrangea traveled to the large town, slimmed down and dressed in frilly white, it may resemble a “Unique” hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata “Unique”). “Unique” is an elegant tree, using its elongated 8-inch blossom clusters that open in the shade of pale cream and mature slowly into seashell pink. The showy “Unique” hydrangea is also the hardiest of its species, however, thriving in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 though 8. The quantity of pruning required depends upon the way you want the plant to look. If you don’t need a big bush, you will have to prune this tree early and often because it can grow quickly to 10 feet high and wide.

Snip off the dead blossoms as they begin to fade if you like a tidy garden. Make the cut just below the flower head.

Cut off any dead, broken or diseased stems as soon as you become aware of these. Use garden clippers, and wipe the blade between cuts with a cloth dipped in denatured alcohol. Remove all dead stems at their point of origin. Cut broken or diseased hydrangea stems at least 6 inches into wood.

Prune “Unique” hydrangeas otherwise in late winter or early spring before the leaves appear. All these shrubs blossom on the current year’s increase, so you can prune them anytime from late summer until early spring. But it’s easier to see what you’re doing when the leaves have dropped.

Prune out some of the oldest canes at ground level each spring if you want the plant a little shorter and slimmer. Select the taller canes to accomplish gentle size reduction. The remaining stems will become slimmer and produce more leaves and blossoms.

Cut the plant to the ground if your “Unique” hydrangea is overly tall or producing small blossoms. If you remove each stem at ground level during dormancy, the tree will create much larger, more vigorous blossoms. Take care, because the abundance of flowers might be sufficient to tip the slim new canes.

Cut the hydrangea stems back hard, alternatively, but leave a foundation frame of 18 to 24 inches of canes. “Unique” hydrangeas will expand somewhat taller with this frame intact, but they will not flop over in a heavy rain.

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How to Plant Marigolds in Vegetable Gardens

Marigolds (Tagetes spp.) Are commonly implanted as companion plants in vegetable gardens. These brightly colored annuals create flowers from summer. The aroma in the marigolds will conceal the smell of the vegetable plant, which confuses backyard pests. Insects, such as beetles and nematodes repel. Do not plant only a couple of crops, plant clumps of marigolds through the garden to ensure the coverage.

Fill a seed with seed soil four to six weeks before you plant the vegetable garden. Distribute the seeds outside on top of the ground and cover seeds. Keep the seeds moist and moist while they germinate, which will require a few weeks.

Fill a set container that’s with potting soil deeper than the seed tray. When they are at least two inches tall, carefully separate the marigold seedlings. With a spoon, dig small holes from the soil the same dimensions as the roots. Plant gently and the marigolds from the pockets firm soil around the plants. Keep the soil moist and place the container in a place with sunlight.

After the vegetable garden is planted, Ready the planting sites by digging up the dirt to a depth of 6 inches with a scoop. The marigold sites should be around the edges of the backyard and at the ends of the rows. Make sure the flowers are located in a place with at least six hours of direct sunlight every day.

Dig the holes for the marigolds broad and as deep as the roots with a hand trowel. Space the plants 24 to 36 inches apart for its varieties of marigolds. Place small varieties that are marigold . Drive bamboo stakes with a 6 inches to the ground beside the marigolds that are large-sized. Tie the stems with soft strips of fabric to the bets. This prevents from flopping over the large flower heads.

Spread 2 to 3 inches of organic mulch around the newly planted seedlings. Use chopped leaves or dried grass slow soil moisture evaporation to decrease weed growth and supply a supply of nutrients. Water the ground around the bottom of the marigolds whenever it begins to dry.

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Angular Leaf Spot Disease in Cucumber Plants

Angular leaf spot is a significant disease of the cucumber family that leads to reduced yields and fruit of poor quality. You may first notice the disease after a period of warm weather accompanied by rainfall. Treat Super leaf spot with a combination of good garden sanitation, fungicides and keeping the plants as dry as possible.


Angular leaf spot on members of the cucumber family is caused by the Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans bacterium. It’s spread by wind, insects, machinery and people who handle the plants and harvest the fruit while the vines are wet. The bacterium survives on plant debris and in the soil, and it can dash from the soil on the plant by overhead watering and heavy rains. In addition, it spreads through seeds gathered from infected plants.


The damage begins as water-soaked places on the plants’ leaf. The affected areas later dry and turn gray or tan. A yellow halo may surround a damaged area, or spot, at first. With the years, the centres of the spots fall out, leaving holes in the leaves. The patches are confined between the veins in the leaves, giving them an angular shape. Lesions on the cucumber fruits begin as small, delicate water-soaked spots. They become dry, chalky and cracked.

Control Steps

Fantastic garden sanitation is a vital part of controlling the illness. Clean up plant debris regularly, and remove and destroy plant debris in the end of the season. Wait at least two years before planting members of the cucumber family in the same location. That practice applies to squash, pumpkins and melons as well as cucumbers. The illness spreads easily when foliage is wet. So using soaker hoses is useful because they water the soil around plants without obtaining the plants moist. It is ideal to avoid the plants when they are moist to prevent spreading the disease in your hands and clothes.


Fungicides containing copper might help control angular leaf spot in cucumbers. The spray is most successful once the temperature is above 75 degrees Fahrenheit and the leaf is wet. Spraying on a hot afternoon once the leaf is dry can injure the plants. Weekly spraying may be required to accomplish control of this disease. Always read and follow the package directions when using copper fungicides. Store unused parts of the fungicides in their original containers and out of the reach of children.

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